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Exam 1B

B lymphocytes are responsible for ______________mediated by circulation antibodies humoral immunity
T cells are responsible for _________ Cell mediated immunity
What is the T cell fx in cell mediated immunity? kill targets directly or stimulate the activity of other leukocytes.
How do B and T Lymphocytes bind antigens? through cognate receptor complexes on their surfaces.BCR & TCR work in conjunction with accessory proteins to produce lymphocyte activation.
Define antigen substances the body recognizes as non-self or foreign
what are antigens associated with? viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites
What non-infectious environmental agents can antigens be found on? pollens, foods, bee venom, clinically derived drugs, vaccines, transfusions, and transplanted tissues.
What are antibodies formed from? Antigens
What is a molecule that can react with antibodies or antigen receptors on B cells or T cells Antigen
What does "antigen presenting" mean? An antigen presenting cell is a macrophage that has ingested and processed a pathogen. This macrophage will show signs of the pathogen (antigen) on its surface.
Which arm of adaptive immunity produces memory cells? Both humoral and cell-mediated immunity
What type of immunity comes from immunizations? active acquired immunity
What type of immunity develops in response to natural exposure to an antigen? Active acquired immunity
Is active-acquired immunity short or long term? long term
What type of immune response does passive acquired immunity involve? It does not involve the immune response at all. T cells transferred from a donor to the recipient
What are examples of passive immunity? maternal antibodies transferred to the fetus, immunoglobulins given to unvaccinated individuals exposed to rabies, and/or hepatitis A.
Is passive immunity long term or temporary? Temporary.
What is the criteria for an antigen to become immunogenic? 1. Must be sufficiently foreign 2. Sufficiently large 3. Sufficiently complex 4. present in sufficient quantities
What is a Hapten? antigens too small to be immunogens by themselves but become immunogenic in combination with larger molecules that fx as carriers for the hapten.
Give examples of a Hapten the antigens of penn and poison ivy are haptens, but they initiate allergic responses only after binding to large molecular weight proteins in the allergic individual's blood or skin
Allergens antigens which produce an allergic response
Immunoglobulin all molecules known to have specificity for antigen
antibody a serum glycoprotein produced by plasma cells in response to a challenge by an immunogen
IgG most abundant most protective smallest crosses the placenta Has 4 subclasses: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4
IgA IgA1 - found in blood IgA2 - found in secretions (breast milk)
IgM 1. Largest 2. first produced during primary response 3. synthesized early in neonatal life 4. Appears in serum 7-10 days after exposure to antigen 5. increased in response to inf in utero
IgD 1.Least Abundant 2. located on surface of developing B cells 3. Fx as 1 type of B cell antigen receptor
IgE Very specialized fx as a mediator of common allergic responses and in the defense of parasitic infections.
What is the role of B cell antigen receptors? to recognize antigen.
What is the difference b/w the roll of B cell antigen receptors and antibodies? B cell antigen receptors must communicate their recognition of the antigen to the cell's nucleus
What is the dominant immunoglobulin in the secretory immune system? IgA2
What is IgA2's primary role in the secretory immune system? to prevent the attachment and invasion of pathogens through mucosal membranes
Which body systems does the secretory immune system protect? GI, pulmonary and genitourinary tracts
Where do IgA2 antibodies present themselves? tears, sweat, saliva, mucus and breast milk
IgA2 is produced by__________. plasma cells
How do B cells of the secretory immune system travel? through the lymphoid tissues of the lacrimal and salivary glands, breasts, bronchi, intestines, and genitourinary tract.
Secretory immunoglobulins act __________. locally
Secretory antibodies in colostrum provide what type of immunity? passive
What is the major fx of the secretory immune system to halt viral and bacterial invasion before local or systemic ds can develop an to prevent a carrier stat that may result in spread of inf to others.
Antigen-antibody binding are ________ in the secretory and systemic immune systems. the same
Define cell-mediated immunity Cell-mediated immunity involves the production of cytotoxic t lymphocytes, activated macrophages, activated NK cells, and cytokines in response to an antigen and is mediated by T lymphocytes
Does cell mediated immunity involve antibodies? No
How does cell mediated immunity work? It involves the activation of macrophages and NK cells, the production of antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
Explain the steps of primary and secondary immunity IgM predominates on inital exposure to the antigen in the primary response, w/IgG appearing later.After the host's immune system is primed,another challenge by the same antigen induces the secondary response in which some IgM & larger amts of IgG are prod
Examples of bacterial superantigens 1. Staphylococcus aureus 2. Streptococcus pyrogenes (includes toxic shock and food poisoning)
Do viruses produce superantigens? some
How does thymic capacity mediate T cell differentiation decreases and by what age range? through atrophy by 15% in size by middle age
How does aging affect the immune fx in persons older than 60 yrs of age? they demonstrate decreased T cell fx/activity and cell mediated response
How is humoral immunity affected by aging? B cell fx is altered. 1. decrease in specific antibody production in response to antigenic challenge. 2. decrease in # of memory B cells
How is the # of T cells produced affected by age. Remains the same
In the aging process, circulating autoantibodies and immune complexes ______. This causes a risk for _______. increase, auto-immune disorders.
IgE mediated reactions are considered what type of reaction? allergic reactions
________ persons produce more IgE. Atopic
List one main IgE mediated reaction Anaphylaxis
List 3 Atopic disorders (Ige mediated reactions) 1. Hay fever 2. Asthma 3. Atopic dermatosis
The most potent mediator of IgE is __________. histamine
What does histamine do? 1. Causes cx of bronchial smooth muscle 2. Increases vascular permeability 3. causes vasodilation 4. H2 receptors in the stomach increase gastric acid secretion 5. Most clinical manifestations of TypeI hypersensitivity reaction are due to histamine
IgE mediated reactions are categorized as ________. Type I hypersensitivity
Tissue specific reactions are categorized as ____________. Type II hypersensitivity.
Humoral Immunity The APC recognizes an antigen,engulfs and processes it,pushes particle to the membrane.The humoral system "see" the particles and produce plasma /memory cells that recognize this antigen.Plasma cells produce IgM,thenIgG to fight the antigen. Memorycells2
Cellular response T lymphocytes differentiate into many types of T cells,Th1,Th2,Th4 (CD4),cytotoxic T,natural killer cells, etc. These cells develop in response to an antigen presented by the macrophage and work through direct destruction of the cell and antigen.
Describe allergic disease 1. Bee sting allergy 2. Anaphylactic reaction 3. Previous reaction=60%possibility for reoccurence 4. antihistamines help very little 5. Epinephrine needed to reverse effects of histamine & result in muscle relaxation
List 10 s/s of anaphylactic reaction 1. excessive swelling 2. Generalized hives 3. itching 4. flushing 5. sweating 6. dizziness 7. HA 8. GI, stomach cramps, vomiting 9. Respiratory, tightness of throat, wheezing, SOB 10. vascular, low BP, shock
List 6 examples of anaphylactic reactions peanuts, shellfish, fish, milk, eggs, medications
Define atopic of, relating to, or caused by a hereditary predisposition toward developing certain hypersensitivity reactions such as hay fever, asthma, or chronic urticaria upon exposure to specific antigens
When does autoimmune disease occur? when tolerance of self antigen breaks down
Autoimmune disease occurs most often in ________. women
Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus is Type ___ and Type ___ hypersensitivity. II, III
SLE happens most often in _______and persons of _____ descent. It has a __________ ____________. women, AA. genetic predisposition.
CLinical manifestations of SLE are: 1.Malar rash 2.Discoid rash 3.Photosensitivity 4.arthritis 5.Serositis 6.renal disorder 7.Neuro disorder 8.hematologic disorder 9.cardiac disorder 10.none of the rashes have blisters or vesicles 11. blisters in mouth or nasopharynx 12.ANA posit
Is there a cure for lupus No. Palliative tx only.
When does alloimmunity occur? when the immune system produces a response to tissues of another individual
Alloimmunity is also called __________. isoimmunity
Type O is ____________ donor. universal
Type O individuals have _____ antigens on their erythrocytes. no
Type O individuals have _____ and ______ antibodies anti-A and anti-B
Type O individuals can receive blood from what other blood type(s)? Type O only.
Type ___ is the universal recipient. AB
Type ___ lacks the anti-A and anti-B antibodies. AB
Type ___ can receive blood from any ABO blood type. AB
Type __ individuals have the A antigen and the antibody to the B antigen. A
Type A individuals can receive blood from Type ___ or Type __ blood type. A, O only
Type B individuals have the __ antigen and the antibody to the __ antigen. B, A
Type B individuals cannot recieve ___ type or ___ type. A, AB
Describe Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Mom is RH- and babies RH+. Mom must be given anti-D antibody as she is able to form the anti-d antibody against baby who would then develop hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Transplant reactions are ______ hypersensitivity reactions Type IV
Transplant reactions can be categorized as .... hyperacute, acute and chronic
RNA viruses replicate in __________. cytoplasm
Examples of RNA viruses are: Polio and Para influenza
DNA viruses require DNA to ____ __ _____ and use _______. enter the nucleus, polymerase.
Examples of DNA viruses are: Herpes and Herpes Zoster
____________ convert genetic info using reverse transcriptase. Retroviruses
Exmaples of retroviruses are: HIV
Examples of bacterial infections which can produce the polysacharide capsule are: pneumococcus TB Streptococcus
______/______ are large microorganisms with thick walls that grow "budding." Fungi/mycosis
Characteristics of Fungi/Mycosis are: 1. Low WBCs promote fungal inf 2. Can be superficial 3. promoted by acid base change, ph change, normal flora decreased due to overuse of antibiotics 4. opportunistic
Examples of superficial fungi/mycosis are: dermatofites in toenail tinea capitis
Hep B is a _____________vaccine and is reproduced in the lab. recombinant
Hep A is a __________. killed virus
PNE vaccine is ____________. bacterial antigens.
Toxoids chemically detoxified vaccines 1.Tetanus 2.Diptheria 3.Pertusis
Examples of endotoxins released when the cell wall is destroyed Gram negative bacteria Spirochetes of syphilis
How do bacteria defend themselves? 1.Bacteria emit exotoxins that damage the cell membrane.Exotoxins are immunogenic causing antibodies called antitoxins to form 2.Toxoid vaccines based on antitoxins 3.bacteria emit endotoxins when cell wall is destroyed 4.penn may cause endotoxins rele
Endotoxins are ___________ causing high fever pyrogenic
Endotoxins can cause _______ Jerish Persheimer reaction
What is an antigen presenting cell? a macrophage that has ingested and processed a pathogen. This macrophage will show signs of the pathogen (known as an antigen) on its surface. This display is known as "antigen presenting".
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