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Adams Pharm final

Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
What kind of drug is used as a sedative-hypnotic for up to 14 days and can cause respiratory depression, hypotension, and shock? Barbiturates
What 2 things should you monitor for in patients taking barbiturates? Blood dyscrasias (fever, sore throat, rash, jaundice, bruising), and serum concentrations of the drug.
Adverse effects of barbiturates? Coma, SJ syndrome, angioedema, thrombophlebitis, hallucinations, blood dyscrasias.
What will a patient have deficiencies of when taking barbiturates? Folic acid, vitamin D, K, and calcium
What drug treats adrenocorticol insufficiency, inflammation, and allergic disorders? Hydrocortisone or Prednisone
What are some long term adverse effects of Prednisone? Peptic ulcer disease, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, cataracts, HTN, impaired wound healing
What are some short term side effects of prednisone? sodium and fluid retention, insomnia, anxiety, headache, vertigo, confusion, depression, tachycardia
What are some contraindications of prednisone? Known infections (unless being treated with anti-infectives), diabetes, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, heart failure, HTN, thiazide or loop diaretics may increase chance of hyperkalemia. No live vaccines
What are some nursing responsibilities for prednisone? Obtain electrolyte levels, hemoglobin, glucose, BUN, creatinine, recommend opthalmic exams every 2-3 months
What is some patient teaching for prednisone? Report weight gain of 5+lbs, no alcohol or caffeine, report heartburn or indigestion, avoid aspirin, eat a high protein, calcium, and vitamin D diet, do not abruptly discontinue
Soy relieves _____ and decreases levels of what drug? Menopausal symptoms, decreased levels of warfarin
What 3 benefits does garlic have? Reduce cholesterol, BP, aids in anticoagulation
How does garlic affect insulin? Additive hypoglycemic effects
What is ginkgo used for? Improves memory, reduces dizziness
How does ginkgo affect seizure drugs? How about Prilosec? Decreases seizure threshold and anticonvulsant therapy, decreases effects of Prilosec
What is ginseng used for? Stress reliever, enhance immune system, decrease fatigue
How does ginseng effect digoxin, insulin, and warfarin? Increased digoxin toxicity, increased hypoglycemic effects, decreases warfarin. Do not use with MAOI's
Myasthenia Gravis attacks what kind of receptors? Nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscles
What two drugs treat MG? Neostigmine (Prostigmin) and Pyridostigmine (Mestinon)
Tensilon is a _____ inhibitor and is used to diagnose _____? AcH, MG
Atropopine blocks ____ receptors, inhibiting the action of ____ at postganglionic sites muscarinic, AcH
Atropine is used to for bradycardia or tachycardia? Bradycardia
When is atropine used? Preop, bronchospasm, antidote for cholinergic agonist overdose
Contraindications for atropine? glaucoma, COPD, MI, heart failure, HTN, hyperthyroidism, GERD, ileus, obstruction of GI tract
What kind of drugs inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis? Statins
The primary goal of statins is to reduce the risk of what 3 things? MI, stroke, coronary heart disease
Side effects of statins headache, intestinal cramping, diarrhea, constipation, rhabdomyolosis
Contraindications of statins? Hepatic impairment, pregnancy category X
When should you take statins? Before you go to bed
What 2 beverages should you eliminate? grapefruit juice and alcohol
What is the first type of drug used for hypertension? hydrochlorothiazide
When giving HCTZ's, what 2 things should you watch for? low potassium levels and hypoglycemia
Example of loop diuretic? lasix
example of K+ sparing diuretic spironolactone
Lasix and digoxin may cause ______ hypokalemia
ACE inhibitors block what? Angiotensin II
Angiotensin II causes what? vasoconstriction,decreased aldosterone secretion
ACE inhibitors and _____ may be used together to manage HTN thiazide diuretics
Calcium channel blockers inhibit the flow of calcium ions in what kind of muscle? cardiac and arteriolar
Does warfarin affect already exisiting clotting factors? No
PT values should be....INR should be.... 1.5-2.5, 2-4
What diet restrictions should warfarin patients be on? Avoid high fat and green veggies
What are signs of coumadin toxicity? bruising, black tarry stools, vision or speech changes, severe headache, weakness or numbness in leg
Dry eyes is a side effect of accutane and what kind of drops are recommended? Restatis
Normal sodium levels are between what? 135-145
Normal phosphate levels are between what? 1-6
Normal magnesium levels are between what? 0.8-4
Normal chloride levels are between what? 95-112
Normal calcium levels are between what? 4-11
Symptoms of hypokalemia muscle weakness, lethargy, anorexia
Most common cause of hypokalemia loop and thiazide diuretics
symptoms of hyperkalemia muscle twitching, fatigue, parastheias, dyspnea, cramping, diarrhea
Digoxin is mainly used for atrial fibrillation, heart failure
Dig toxicity symptoms loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, visual disturbances
Is it ok to take OTC meds with Dig? No
The most dangerous adverse effect of dig is it's ability to cause what? ventricular dysrythmias
Inotropic agents do what increase force of contraction of heart
Chronotropic agents do what positive increases heart rate, negative decreases
What is Zantac indicated for? ulcers, gerd, heartburn
Take Zantac with/without meals? with
What are some adverse reactions to Zantac? blood dyscrasias, high doses cause gynecomastia, impotence
Can you use Zantac during pregnancy? Breast feeding? Yes, no
What kind of drugs are best for treating diarrhea? opiods
Side effects of Lomotil? drowsiness, flushing, dry mouth tachycardia
Are opiods short or long term for diarrhea? short
Long term choice for diarrhea is... Immodium
Examples of bulk forming laxatives... fibercon, metamucil
Example of stimulant laxative... ducolax
What kind of drug suppresses the cough reflex? opiods
Most adverse effect of opiods... respiratory depression
Opiods do what to BP orthostatic hypotension and vasodilation
Opiods are/are not used in pregnancy are not
What 3 main things decrease blood glucose levels? exercise, alcohol, fasting
What are a few things that increase blood glucose levels? stress from infection, surgery, carbs, growth hormone
Signs of hypoglycemia include... headache, difficulty concentrating, seizures, coma, epi and norepi effects
What are the effects of hyperglycemia? dehydration, confusion, lethargy, aphasia, visual disturbances, tachycardia,
When is the best time to take Synthroid? With/without food? In the morning, no food, one hour before taking other meds
Synthroid should not be taken with what? cholestyramine, colestipol, calcium,aluminum, iron, antacids, warfarin.
Too much Synthroid produces what effects? sympathetic...may experience weight loss
What meds are used in prevention of osteoporosis? calcium, vitamin d, biophosphonates, SERMS
hypercalcemia symptoms lethargy, weakness, tingling, dysrthymias, hypotension
What may decrease the absorption of calcium? zinc
Fosamax affects what? When do you take it? bone resorption/empty stomach 30 minutes prior to eating
Calcitrol is a? Take with meals? bone resorption/empty stomach
SERMS are for osteoporosis phrophylaxis and the prototype drug is... raloxifene
Colchicine, used for gout, stops wbc's from... infiltrating area
Take drug with food? No
Fosamax when pregnant? No
SERMS when pregnant? No
Colchicine taken with food? no
Side effects of Colchicine... mostly GI, bone marrow toxicity, leucopenia, mental confusion...
How does allopurinol work? inhibits uric acid formation
Take with food? yes
Patient should drink __liters of water per day? 3-4
On allopurinol, patient should stay away from light so as not to develop ____ cataracts
Created by: IHATEATI