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A&P Heart & Blood

The heart is a cone-shaped muscular organ located within the ___. Medastium
Its apex rests on the ____. Diaphragm
Its base is at the level of the _____ rib. Second
The coronary arteries that nourish the myocardium arise from the _____. Aorta
The coronary sinus empties into the ___. Right Atrium
Relative to the roles of the heart chambers, the ____ are the receiving chambers. Atria
Relative to the roles of the heart chambers, the ____ are the discharging chambers. Ventricles
The membrane that lines the heart and also forms the valve flaps is called the ____. Endocardium
The outermost layer of the heart is called the ___. Epicardium
The fluid that fills the pericardial sac acts to decrease ___ during heart activity. Friction
The heart muscle, or myocardium, is composed of a specialized type of muscle tissue called ____. Cardiac Muscle
The contraction of the ventricles is referred to as ___. Systole
The period of ventricular relaxation is called ___. Diastole
The monosyllables describing heart sounds during the cardiac cycle are ___. "lub dup"
The first heart sound is a result of closure of the ____ valves. Atrioventricular valves
The second heart sound is caused by closure of the ____ valves. Semilunar valves
The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first heart sound are the ____. Atria
The chambers that have just been emptied when you hear the first heart sound are the ___. Ventricles
Immediately after the second heart sound, the ____ are filling with blood. Ventricles
Immediately after the second heart sound, the ____ are empty. Atria
Abnormal heart sounds, or ___, usually indicate valve problems. Heart murmurs
Which two valves prevent back flow into the ventricles when the heart is relaxed? Pulmonary valve & Aortic valve
Which two valves prevent back flow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting? Mitral (Bicuspid) valve & Tricuspid valve
Which AV valve has three flaps? Tricuspid valve
Which AV valve has two flaps? Mitral (Bicuspid) valve
What is the pacemaker of the intrinsic conduction system? Sinoatrial Node
What is the point in the intrinsic conduction system where the impulse is temporarily delayed? Atrioventricular Node
What is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart called? Electrocardiogram (ECG)
What is the period when the atria are depolarizing? P Wave
What is the period when the ventricles are repolarizing? T Wave
What is the period during which the ventricles are depolarizing, which precedes their contraction? QRS Wave
What is an abnormally slow heartbeat, that is, slower than 60 beats per minute called? Brachycardia
What is an abnormally fast heartbeat, that is, faster than 100 beats per minute called? Tachycardia
What is the condition in which the heart is uncoordinated and useless as a pump? Fibrillation
Damage to the AV node, totally or partially releasing the ventricles from the control of the sinoatrial (SA) node is called? Heart Block
What is chest pain, resulting from ischemia of the myocardium called? Angina Pectoris
In the relationship CO = HR x SV, CO stands for ___. Cardiac Output
In the relationship CO = HR x SV, HR stands for ___. Heart Rate
In the relationship CO = HR x SV, SV stands for ___. Stroke Volume
The normal average adult cardiac output, therefore, is ____. 75 bpm
The time for the entire blood supply to pass through the body is once each ____. Minute
According to Starling's law of the heart, the critical factor that determines force of heartbeat, or ___ is the degree of ___ of the cardiac muscle just before it contracts. Preload ; Stretching
Consequently, the force of heartbeat can be increased by increasing the amount of ____ returned to the heart. Blood
What factors will lead to an increase in cardiac output by influencing either heart rate or stroke volume? Epinephrine, Thyroxine, Fear, Exercise, Activation of the sympathetic nervous system, Low blood pressure, Fever
True or False: The resting heart rate is fastest in (adult) life. False; Fetus
True or False: Because the heart of the highly trained athlete hypertrophies, its (stroke volume) decreases. False; Resting Heart Rate
True or False: If the (right) side of the heart fails, pulmonary congestion occurs. False; Left
True or False: In (peripheral) congestion, the feet, ankles, and fingers become edematous. True
True or False: The pumping action of the healthy heart ordinarily maintains a balance between cardiac output and (venous return). True
Which term does not belong: Pulmonary Trunk, Vena Cava, Right side of the heart, Left side of the heart Right side of the heart
Which term does not belong: QRS wave, T wave, P wave, Electrical activity of the ventricles P wave
Which term does not belong: AV valves closed, AV valves opened, Ventricular systole, Semilunar valves open AV valves opened
Which term does not belong: Papillary muscles, Aortic semilunar valve, Tricuspid valve, Chordae tendinae Aortic semilunar valve
Which term does not belong: Tricuspid valve, Mitral valve, Bicuspid valve, Left AV valve Tricuspid valve
Which term does not belong: Ischemia, Infarct, Scar tissue repair, Heart block Scar tissue valve
The central cavity of a blood vessel is called the ___. Lumen
Reduction of the diameter of the lumen is called ____. Stenosis
Enlargement of the diameter of the lumen is called ____. Dilation
Blood is carried to the heart by ____. Vena cava
Blood is carried away from the heart by _____. Aorta
Capillary beds are supplied by ___. Arterioles
Capillary beds are drained by ____. Venules
Why do veins need valves but arteries do not? Veins need valves to create pressure to pump the blood to the heart.
Name two events occurring within the body that aid in venous return. Respiratory Pump and Muscular Pump
Which type of Tunica is a single, thin layer of endothelium? Tunica Intima
Which type of Tunica is the bulky middle coat, that contains a smooth muscle and elastin? Tunica Media
Which type of Tunica provides a smooth surface to decrease resistance to blood flow? Tunica Intima
Which type of Tunica is the only tunica of capillaries? Tunica Intima
Which type of Tunica is also called the adventitia? Tunica Externa
Which type of Tunica is the only tunica that plays an active role in blood pressure regulation? Tunica Media
Which type of Tunica is the supporting, protective coat? Tunica Externa
Describe the physical characteristics of an artery. It has no valves, and it has small lumen.
Describe the physical characteristics of a vein. It has valves, and it has big lumen.
Describe the physical characteristics of a capillary. It is only a thin wall of tunica intima.
Deep veins, draining the forearm are Radial and Ulnar
Vein that receives blood from the arm via the axillary vein is called Subclavian
Vein that drain venous blood from the myocardium of the heart into the coronary sinus is called Cardiac
Vein that drains the kidney Renal
Vein that drains the dural sinuses of the brain Internal Jugular
Two veins that join to become the superior vena cava Brachiocephalic
Veins that drain the leg and foot Anterior Tibial & Posterior Tibial
Large vein that carries nutrient-rich blood from the digestive organs to the liver for processing Hepatic Portal
Superficial vein that drains the lateral aspect of the arm Cephalic
Vein that drains the ovaries or testes Gonadal
Vein that drains the thorax, empties into the superior vena cava Azygos
Largest vein below the thorax Inferior Vena Cava
Vein that drains the liver Hepatic
Three veins that form/empty into the hepatic portal vein Gastric, Inferior Mesenteric, Superior Mesenteric
Longest superficial vein of the body; found in the leg Greater Saphenous
Vein that is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins Common iliac
Deep vein of the thigh Femoral
Two arteries formed by the division of the brachiocehpalic trunk Common carotid & Subclavian
First artery that branches off the ascending aorta; serves the heart Coronary
Two paired arteries, serving the brain Internal Carotid & Vertebral
Largest artery of the body Aorta
Arterial network on the dorsum of the foot Dorsalis Pedis
Artery that serves the posterior thigh Deep artery of the thigh
Artery that supplies the diaphragm Phrenic
Artery generally auscultated to determine blood pressure in the arm Brachial
Artery that supplies the last half of the large intestine Inferior Mesenteric
Artery that serves the pelvis Internal iliac
External iliac becomes this artery on entering the thigh Femoral
Major artery serving the arm Brachial
Artery that supplies most of the small intestine Superior Mesenteric
The terminal branches of the dorsal, or descending, aorta Common iliac
Arterial trunk that has three major branches, which serve the liver, spleen, and stomach Celiac Trunk
Major artery, serving the tissues external to the skull External Carotid
Three arteries, serving the leg inferior to the knee Posterior Tibial, Anterior Tibial, & Peroneal
Artery generally used to feel the pulse at the wrist Radial
Damage to the left semilunar valve would interfere with blood flow into this vessel Aorta
An anastomosis that allows communication between the posterior and anterior blood supplies of the brain Circle of Willis
The vessel carrying oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to the fetus from the placenta Umbilical Vein
The shunt that allows most fetal blood to bypass the liver Ductus Venosus
Two pairs of arteries, arising from the internal carotid artery Anterior cerebral artery & Middle cerebral artery
The posterior cerebral arteries, serving the brain, arise from here Basilar artery
Fetal shunt between the aorta and pulmonary trunk that allows the lungs to be bypassed by the blood Ductus Arteriosus
Opening in the interatrial septum that shunts fetal blood from the right to the left atrium, thus bypassing the fetal lungs Foramen Ovale
Why are the lungs largely bypassed by the circulating blood in the fetus? The fetus is given oxygen and nutrients by maternal blood. The lungs are mostly used for oxygenation, so it's not needed yet.
Which term does not belong: High Pressure, Vein, Artery, Spurting Blood Vein
Which term does not belong: Carotid Artery, Cardiac Vein, Coronary Sinus, Coronary Artery Cardiac Vein
Which term does not belong: Increased Venous Return, Respiratory Pump, Vasodilation, Milking Action of Skeletal Muscle Milking Action of Skeletal Muscle
Which term does not belong: High Blood Pressure, Hemorrhage, Weak Pulse, Low Cardiac Output High Blood Pressure
Which term does not belong: Resistance, Friction, Vasodilation, Vasoconstriction Vasodilation
Expansion and recoil of an artery during heart activity Pulse
Pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls Blood Pressure
Factors related to blood pressure Cardiac Output & Diastolic Blood Pressure
Event primarily responsible for peripheral resistance Constriction of arterioles
Blood pressure during heart relaxation Diastolic blood pressure
Site where blood pressure determinations are normally made Over arteries
Points at the body surface where the pulse may be felt Pressure points
Sounds heard over a blood vessel when the vessel is partially compressed Sounds of Korotkoff
In terms of its tissue classification, blood is classified as a ___ because it has living blood cells, called ___. Connective tissue; formed elements
Formed elements are suspended in a nonliving fluid matrix called ____. Plasma
The "fibers" of blood only become visible during ____. Blood clotting
If a blood sample is centrifuged, the heavier blood cells become packaged at the bottom of the tube. Most of this compacted cell mass is composed of ___. Erythrocytes
The volume of blood accounted for by Erythrocytes is referred to as ____. Hematocrit
The less dense ___ rises to the top and constitutes about 45% of the blood volume. Plasma
The so-called "buffy coat," composed of ___ and ___, is found at the junction between the other two blood elements. Leukocytes; Platelets
The buffy coat accounts for less than ___ % of volume. one
Blood is scarlet red in color when it is loaded with ____; otherwise it tends to be dark red. Oxygen
Most numerous leukocyte Neutrophil
Granular leukocytes Eosinophil, Basophil, & Neutrophil
Also called an erythrocyte; a nucleate Red Blood Cell
Actively phagocytic leukocytes Monocyte & Neutrophil
Agranular leukocytes Monocytes & Lymphocytes
Fragments to form platelets Megakaryocyte
Red Blood Cell, Megakaryocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil, Monocyte, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte are all examples of this ____. Formed Elements
Increases during allergy attacks Eosinophil
Releases histamine during inflammatory reactions Basophil
After originating in bone marrow, may be formed in lymphoid tissue Lymphocyte
Contains hemoglobin Red blood cell
Primarily water, noncellular; the fluid matrix of blood Plasma
Increases in number during prolonged infections Monocyte
Least numerous leukocyte Basophil
Also called white blood cells Eosinophil, Basophil, Monocyte, Neutrophil, & Lymphocyte
White blood cells move into and out of blood vessels by the process of ___. Diapedesis
An abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs is ____. Leukopenia
When blood becomes too acidic or too basic, both the respiratory system and the ____ may be called into action to restore it to its normal pH range. Kidneys
The normal pH range of blood is ___ to 7.45. 7.35
The cardiovascular system of an average adult contains approx. ___ liters of blood. 5
The only WBC type to arise from lymphoid stem cells is the ____. Lymphocyte
An abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells is ____. Leukocytosis
The normal RBC count is ______ million/mm^3. 3.5 - 4.5
Normal ______ values are in the area of 42% - 47% of the volume of whole blood. hematocrit
An anemia resulting from a decreased RBC number causes the blood to become ___ viscous. less
Phagocytic agranular WBCs are _____. Monocytes
The Leukocytes particularly important in the immune response are _____. Lymphocytes
Which term does not belong: Erythrocytes, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils Erythrocytes
Which term does not belong: Neutrophils, Monocytes, Basophils, Eosinophils Monocytes
Which term does not belong: Hemoglobin, Lymphocyte, Oxygen Transport, Erythrocytes Lymphocytes
Which term does not belong: Platelets, Monocytes, Phagocytosis, Neutrophils Platelets
Which term does not belong: Thrombus, Aneurysm, Embolus, Clot Aneurysm
Which term does not belong: Plasma, Nutrients, Hemoglobin, Wastes Hemoglobin
Which term does not belong: Myeloid stem cell, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Basophil Lymphocyte
What factors would serve as stimuli for erythropoiesis? Hemorrhage, Aerobic Respiration, & Living at a high altitude
Clotting begins when a ____ occurs in a blood vessel wall. Break
Almost immediately, ___ cling to the blood vessel wall and release _____, which helps to decrease blood loss by helping to constrict the vessel. Platelets; Serotonin
____, released by damaged cells in the area, interacts with _____ on the platelet surfaces and other clotting factors to form _____. Tissue factor, PF3, Prothrombin activator
This chemical substance causes ___ to be converted to ____. Prothrombin; Thrombin
Once present, molecule #8 acts as an enzyme to attach ___ molecules together to form long, threadlike strands of ___ which then traps ____ flowing by in the blood. Fibrinogen, Fibrin, & Erythrocytes
Normally blood clots within _____ minutes. 3 - 6
The most important natural body anticoagulant is ______. Heparin
_____ means stoppage of blood flow. Hemostasis
What blood type is the universal donor? Type O
What blood type is the universal recipient? Type AB
Define Transfusion Reaction: Plasma antibodies attach and destroy the red blood cells different from the person receiving the antibodies.
A fetus has a special type of hemoglobin, hemoglobin ____. F
An infant's tissues can become yellowed, or ____. Jaundiced
An anemia in which RBCs become sharp and "logjam" in the blood vessels under conditions of low-oxygen tension in the blood is ____ anemia. sickle cell
Bleeder's disease, or ____, is a result of a deficiency of certain clotting factors. Hemophilia
Women are particularly prone to ____ - deficiency anemia. Iron
Elderly people are susceptible to ___ anemia. Pernicious
Pernicious anemia is a result of lack of intrinsic factor, which is necessary for vitamin ___ absorption. B
An important problem in aged individuals is their tendency to form undesirable clots or ___. Macrocytes
Both the young and the elderly are at risk for cancer of the blood, or ____. Leukemia
Created by: Bex28