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TL Bone Diagnostic

Diagnostic tests and assessments

What information is provided by an EMG (Electomyogram or Myogram)? the electrical activity of muscle during contraction; can differentiate muscle dysfunction from nerve dysfunction
Define arthroscopy. a surgical procedure in which a pencil sized camera is inserted through the skin into a joint sending images to a video camera to provide visualization of the inside of the joint
When might arthroscopy be useful? to diagnose or treat osteo- or rheumatoid arthritis, infectious types of arthritis, internal joint injuries like meniscus tears, ligament strains or tears, or cartilage deterioration
What is the advantage of surgery by arthroscopy as compared to traditional joint surgery? less tissue trauma, pain, and quicker recovery
What education does a client require post arthroscopic procedure? take analgesic, activity restriction, observe for hematoma/bleeding, perform neurovascular check, signs and symptom of infection to report
Define a neurovascular check. check temperature, color, capillary refill, movement and sensation of affected extremity
What are the signs of infection? elevated temperature, warmth at the site, purulent discharge, redness
Define arthrogram. Contrast media or air is injected into a joint cavity, the client moves the joint through a series of movements while X-rays are taken
What is a priority intervention for an arthrogram? assess for allergy to contrast media
What education should the client receive prior to an arthrogram with injected contrast dye? Expect a feeling of warmth, nausea, headache, salty taste in the mouth, itching, hives, and rash throughout the body (usually temporary, but may require tx)
What should the client be taught after an arhtrogram? may be a temporary discoloration of skin and urine, increase fluids to eliminate dye, how to perform neurovascular assessment
Define CT scan. Computerized Axial Tomography – combines x-ray with computer technology to produce highly detailed cross-sectional images of internal organs and structures of the body – aka CAT scan
What does the client need to know post CT scan? drink lots of fluid to clear contrast medium from body. If barium is used stools may be white till cleared from system. Monitor for evacuation of media and possible constipation.
Define MRI. magnetic resonance imaging- radiologic technique (w/o radiation) that combines magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce cross sectional images of body structures
What are some potential adversities for the client getting an MRI? Noisy machine and claustrophobic sensation
What may be done to ease claustrophobic sensations for the client receiving MRI? a mild sedative may be administered
When would MRI be contraindicated? in the presence of metallic body parts such as implants, pacemakers, artificial joints, metallic bone plates, prosthetic devices, surgical clips, bullet fragments, metallic clips, or other metal objects in the body
What is a bone scan? technique using a small amount of radioactive material that travels through the blood stream to create images of bone on a computer screen or film
What is the usefulness of a bone scan? the radioactive material settles in abnormal areas of bone where blood flow is increased. Increased absorption takes place in disorders such as osteomyolitis, osteoporosis, fractures, Paget’s disease, and cancer of the bone
Define arthrocentesis. Joint aspiration and analysis – fluid is removed from joint to reduce swelling and pain and/or to obtain fluid for examination using a sterile needle and syringe.
What are the possible postprocedure complications of arhtrocentesis? localized bruising, minor bleeding into joint cavity, loss of pigment at injection site, septic arthritis (rare, but serious)
What need does the client need to watch for after arthrocentesis if cortisone was used? inflammation of the injected area, atrophy or loss of pigment at the injection site, increase in blood glucose