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bi 240 hypersensitiv

grcc bi240 hypersensitivity reactions

QuestionAnswer
allergic reaction or an abnormal reactions characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimulus hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity disorders include allergy, autoimmune, isimmunity
allergy antigen is an exogenous agent
autoimmunity antigen to self
isimmunity antigon is from tissue or another individual.
4 types of hypersensitivity mechanisms IgE mediated, tissue specific, Immune complex mediated and cell mediated.
Type I-IgE mediated is the most common antibodies that coat mast cells signalling them to degranulate followed by discharge of chemicals such as histamine,
Type II - Tissue specific Antibodies bind to the antigen on the cell surface. think transfusion gone wrong- wrong blood given.
type III- Immune complex mediated antibodies bind to soluble antigens that were released into the body fluids and the immune complexes are deposited into the tissue.
Type IV- cell mediated cytototoxic T lymphocytes or lymphokines that produce TH1 cells (T helper cells) attack & destroy cellular targets directly.
Type I hypersensitivity Allergic reactions are IgE mediated.
Type 1 hypersensitivity is humoral and immeadieate
In Type 1-first exposure to allergen leads to development of IgE antibodies from B lymphs that attach to mast cells and basophils in tissues = sensitization
In type 1 subsequent exposures (following first exposure) allergen attaches to IgE antibody on mast cell releasing histamine leading to inflammation & edema
Type 1 anaphylatic shock large amounts of chemicals released from mast cells causing severe reactions.
Type 1 anaphylatic affects systemically systemic vasodilation leads to severe decreased BP and loss of fluids
Type 1 anaphylatic affects lungs by bronchconstriction leading to hypoxemia
Treatment for anaphylatic rxn Benedryl, epinephrineo
What does benedryl do? it is an anti-histamine- blocks response to release histamine
epinephrine opens airways via bronchodilation, decreases mucus production
epinephrine increases BP via vasoconstriction which reverses the effects of histamine.
Created by: Wends1984