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hygiene, infection, urinary system disorders, nursing process & delivery

healthcare system totality of service offered by all health disciplines
inpatient stay greater than 24 hours
outpatient stay for for less than 24 hours
respite care short term or temp care of sick or disable clients to provide relief to regular caregiver
restorative care planned, systematic program that focuses on helping each client obtain & maintain the highest level of function
custodial care care provided at at nursing facility or home when condition is such that it will not progress
Omnibus Budget reconciliation act ( OBRA) legistlation to bring a measure of quality improvement to nursing home & extended care facility
managed care describes healthcar system whose goals are to provide cost effective, quality care that focuses on improved outcomes for groups of clients
nursing process systematic, logical method of providing individulized nursing care
assessment systematic collection, organization, validation & documentation of data
observation collection of data by using senses
diagnosing analyzing & synthesizing
Assessment systematic collection, organization, validation & documentation of data
Care plan Product of the planning phase of nursing process
Dependent interventions Activities carried out under the physician's orders or supervision or according to specified routines
Collaborative interventions Nursing activities that reflect the overlapping responsibilities among health personnel
Independent interventions Activities that nurses are licensed to do on the basis of their knowledge and skills
Database All information known about the client from nursing assessment, physician's history, & the family; used to gauge changes in client status
Desired/expected outcomes broader goals of a client in relation to a nursing diagnosis-i.e. client will have adequate gas exchange
Diagnosing Analyzing & synthesizing data to provide a statement of condition or need
Etiology Cause or origin
Evaluation planned, ongoing, purposeful activity which client/professionals determine the client's progress toward goal achievement & the effectiveness of the nursing care plan
Examination systematic data collection method
Goals particular aspects of desired outcome for client-i.e client will increase use of the incentive spirometer by 30 seconds at each use
Implementation Phase of the nursing process which selected nursing interventions & activities occur
Interventions actions initiated by the nurse to achieve client goals
Interview planned communication or a conversation w/ a purpose
Manifestations Signs & symptoms
Nursing diagnosis statement about alteration in client's health status; referring to a condition nurses are licensed to treat
Objective data detectable by an observer
Nursing process systematic, rational method of planning and providing individualized nursing care for all
Observation Gathering data by using the senses
Planning process of designing nursing activities required to prevent, reduce, or eliminate a client's health problems
Subjective data apparent only to the person being affected
Procedures Physical skills i.e. manipulating equipment, giving injections, dressing changes, moving, lifting, and repositioning clients
Rationale scientific principle given as reason for selecting particular nursing intervention
Signs detectable by an observer or can be tested against an accepted standard
Symptoms Information on condition that is apparent only to the person involved
Case management range of models for integrating healthcare services for individuals or groups
Case method Also referred to as total care; situation in which one nurse is assigned to and responsible for the comprehensive care of a group of clients during an 8- or 12-hour shift
Client-focused care delivery model that brings all services and care providers to the client
Clinical pathways Also called critical pathways) An expected path of client needs, care, teaching, and progress for specific diagnoses
Diagnostic-related groups Prospective payment or billing is formulated before the client is even admitted to the hospital, thus, the record of admission, rather than the record of treatment, now governs payment
Functional method Method that focuses on the jobs to be completed (e.g., bed making, temperature measurement)
Healthcare system totality of services offered by all health disciplines
Health maintenance organization group healthcare agency that provides basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services to voluntary enrollees who pay a preset fee
Independent practice associations group healthcare agency in which clients pay a fixed prospective payment to the IPA, and the IPA pays the provider; the provider receives a fixed fee for services given
Integrated delivery system system that incorporates acute care services, home healthcare, extended and skilled care facilities, & outpatient services
Managed care healthcare system whose goals are to provide cost-effective, quality care that focuses on improved outcomes for groups of clients
Medicaid federal public assistance program paid out of general taxes to people who require financial assistance for medical care
Medicare federal program to assist people aged 65 years and over with medical care
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) Law passed to improve nursing homes and extended-care facilities
Preferred provider arrangements Individual healthcare providers that provide an insurance company or employer with health services at a discounted rate
Preferred provider organizations group of physicians and perhaps a healthcare agency (often a hospital) that provide an insurance company or employer with health services at a discounted rate
Primary nursing Total nursing responsibility for a group of clients 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
Prospective payment system system that limits the amount paid to hospitals that are reimbursed by Medicare
Supplemental Security Income Special payments to people who are blind or disabled; SSI benefits are not restricted to people who are eligible for Social Security, & payments are not restricted to healthcare costs
Team nursing delivery of individualized nursing care to clients by a nursing team led by a professional nurse
Afternoon care type of hygienic care that often includes providing a bedpan or urinal, washing the hands and face, and assisting with oral care to refresh clients' mouths
Alopecia Absence of hair on the head and/or body
As-needed (PRN) care type of hygienic care provided as required by the client
Bed cradle device designed to keep the top bedclothes off the feet, legs, & even abdomen of a client
Caries Cavities; dental decay
Cerumen Earwax
Cleaning baths Baths given chiefly for hygiene purposes to remove accumulated oil, perspiration, dead skin cells, & some bacteria
Contact lenses Thin curved disks of hard or soft plastic that fit on the cornea of the eye directly over the pupil
Dandruff Diffuse scaling of the scalp
Dentures plate" of artificial teeth for one jaw worn to replace upper or lower teeth or both
Early morning care type of hygienic care provided to clients as they awaken in the morning, consisting of providing a urinal/bedpan to the client confined to bed, washing face/hands, & giving oral care
Gingiva Gums of the mouth
Halitosis Bad breath
Hearing aid battery-powered, sound-amplifying device used by people with hearing impairments
Hirsutism Condition of excessive hair growth
Hour of sleep (HS) care Hygienic care provided to clients before they retire for the night
Hygiene science of health & maintenance
Lanugo Soft downy hair present on the fetus's or newborn's face, arms, and back
Morning care hygienic care provided after breakfast including provision of urinal/bedpan, bath or shower; perineal care; back massages; oral, nail, & hair care; also making bed
Pediculosis An infestation with lice
Scabies contagious skin infestation by the itch mite
Sebum An oily substance secreted by the skin
Therapeutic baths Hygienic care given for physical effects, such as to soothe irritated skin or to treat an area
Ticks Small, gray-brown parasites that bite into tissue and suck blood
Antigens identifies foreign substances & induces sensitivity or immune response
Antimicrobial Microbe-destroying
Antiseptics Agents that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms
Asepsis absence of disease-causing microorganisms
Aseptic technique Technique used to prevent the possibility of transferring microorganisms from one place or person to another
Bacteria Most common type of disease-causing microorganisms
Bactericidal agent Solution or chemical that destroys bacteria
Bacteriostatic agent Agent that prevents growth and reproduction of only some bacteria
Carrier potential source of infection for others
Communicable disease Disease that is spread or transmitted by direct or indirect contact
Disease process that causes a detectable impairment in the way the body functions
Disinfectants Agents that destroy pathogens other than spores
Etiologic agent Source of the infection
Fomite An inanimate object such as a toy, cooking or eating utensil, or contaminated instrument that can transmit infection from one area or person to another
Fungi Either yeasts or molds
Iatrogenic infection An infection directly caused by any diagnostic or therapeutic source (healthcare provider)
Immunity resistance of the body to infection
Infection An invasion of the body by a disease-causing organism
Infectious disease Disease that primarly infects client & is not easily communicable to others
Inflammatory response local, nonspecific defense reaction of tissues when they are exposed to infection or injury
Local infection infection in which microorganisms are only in a specific part of the body
Medical asepsis All practices used to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area or to limit the number of microorganisms, their growth, and their transmission
Nonspecific defenses Anatomic and physiological barriers and the inflammatory response
Nosocomial infections Infections that occur after hospital admission and for which the client had no symptoms at the time of admission
Opportunistic pathogen agent that causes a disease only in a susceptible person (someone whose immune system is not functioning as a defense system
Parasites Organisms that live on other living organisms
Pathogens Microorganisms that cause disease
Portal of entry Fifth link in the chain of infection; a means of entry into the body for pathogenic microorganisms
Portal of exit way of leaving the reservoir
Reservoir source of the microorganism
Resident flora Harmless microorganisms found in and on the body
Sepsis presence of infection
Septicemia Spread of bacteria from a local infection into the bloodstream; also known as blood poisoning
Specific defenses Changes in the immune system that provide protection to the body
Standard precautions Guidelines for special care to be used with all body fluids, especially those associated with bloodborne pathogens (e.g., hepatitis B and C, and HIV infections)
Sterile field microorganism-free area
Surgical asepsis Practice that keeps an object or an area completely free of microorganisms and spores
Susceptibility of the host sixth link in the chain of infection; the extent to which a person is likely to contract an infection
Susceptible host Individual with impaired immune response who is at risk for developing infection
Systemic infection illness caused by microorganisms that spread to & damage other body areas
Transmission manner in which a microorganism gets to the host
Transmission-based precautions Guidelines used in addition to standard precautions for any client with known or suspected infections that are spread by airborne or droplet transmission or by physical contact
Vector Vehicle, a living means of transport for infection
Virulence organism's ability to produce disease and survive both inside and outside the body
Viruses smallest known disease-causing agents; they must enter living cells in order to reproduce
Acute renal failure sudden decrease in or total lack of kidney function; it can be reversed with prompt treatment
Anuria Low amounts of urine or no urine
Azotemia Increased nitrogenous wastes in the blood including urea and creatinine
Dysuria Pain on urination
Enuresis Urinary incontinence after voluntary control has normally been reached
Frequency Need to void more than usual
Hematuria Blood in the urine
Hydronephrosis Distention of the renal pelvis caused by increased pressure due to urine backup
Incontinence Inability to control elimination
Ketone bodies Products of the breakdown of fatty acids
Meatus opening in the external body that serves as a passageway for the elimination of urine
Micturition (Voiding or urination) the process of emptying the urinary bladder
Nephrons Functional units of the kidneys that filter the blood and remove metabolic wastes
Neurogenic bladder Dysfunction of nerves supplying the bladder
Nocturia Excessive nighttime urination
Oliguria Low amounts of urine or no urine
Polyuria Diuresis; excessive urination
Pyuria Pus in the urine
Renal failure condition which kidneys are unable to carry out the normal functions necessary to eliminate waste products, maintain fluid, & electrolyte balance
Residual urine Urine remaining in the bladder following the voiding
Uremia toxic state marked by an accumulation of urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood
Urgency Feeling that voiding must occur immediately
Urinary retention inability to empty the bladder completely
Created by: jadenikol