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TL Bones

Bone Anatomy and Physiology

What are the functions of the skeletal system? Protect vital organs/soft tissue; Calcium storage and serum calcium balance; attachment for muscles
What are bones mainly comprised of? calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
Describe the features of long bones. central shaft – diaphysis, two ends epiphyseals
Give two examples of long bones. Humerus and Radius, Tibia and Fibula, Femur
Describe the features of short bones. cancellous bone surrounded by compact bone
Give two examples of short bones. carpals and tarsals
Describe flat bones. two layers of compact bone separated by a layer of cancellous bone
Give four examples of flat bones. Skull, ribs, scapula, sternum
Define the structure and function of bone marrow. highly cellular blood-forming and storing tissue; makes RBC, WBC, and platelets
Describe the attachement of ribs to vertebrae. 12 pairs of ribs – 7 attach to vertebrae and sternum, three attach to vertebrae and cartilage to ribs above and last two are only attached in the back
Name the bones of the arm. Humerus, Radius, Ulna
Name the bones of the hip. ileum, ischium, and pubis
What bone connects the two sides of the hip bones? the sacrum
Define ligaments. bands of rigid connective tissue that hold joints together allowing for movement with stability
Why does it take ligaments so long to heal? poor blood supply
Name the 3 primary types of muscle. striated skeletal, striated heart, smooth/involuntary muscle (intestines and artery walls)