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What is trepanation ? Boring HOles into skulls w/ the aim to cure. (treat head aches, mental disorders, a hole for evil spirits to escape.)
What organ was considered to be the seat of the soul in ancient Egypt? Heart
What was the fate of the brain when bodies were preserved for the afterlife? scooped out through the nostrils and discarded
What function did Aristotle propose for the brain? that it was the radiator for the cooling of the blood that was overheated by the seething heart. He believed the heart was the center of intellect.
What four key insights of neuroscience were gained during the nineteenth century? Nerves as wires specific functions localize to diff parts of the brain brains of different species are analygous the neuron is the basic function of the brain
What is phrenology? correlating the structure of the head with personality traits. (bumps determined personality)- Franz Joseph gall
What was Broca’s contribution to neuroscience? the idea that the function of the cerebrum depended on the location. He ID discreat regions of the human cerebrum for speech. (left frontal lobe)
What was Schwann’s contribution? all tissues are composed of miscropic units called Cells. This later became known as "cell theory"
What five levels of analysis are performed in neuroscience? molecular neuroscience cellular systems behavorial cognitive
What contribution did Nissl make to the study of neuroscience? idea that a class of basic dyes would stain nuclei of cells also stain clumps of materials (nissl bodies) surrounding the nuclei of neurons
What contribution did Golgi make to the study of neuroscience? that neurons have atleast 2 parts- Cell body , and neurites. He believed that neurites of diff cells are fused together to form continous networks. Came up with Golgi stain.
What contribution did Cajal make to the study of neuroscience neurites of different neurons are not continuous w/ one another and must communicate by contact, not by continuity. He also drew many ideas of the brains circuitry.
What is the neuron doctrine? the idea that the neuron adhere to the cell theory
Draw a prototypic neuron, and label the most important features.
What are the major structural features of the axon?
How are proteins shipped down the axon? proteins are synthesized in the soma and then shipped down the axon via axoplasmic transport. (the movement of materials down the axon)
What is anterograde and retrograde transport? Anterograde- movement of materials from Soma to the Terminals Retrograde- movement of materials from Terminals to Soma
What roles do dynein and kinesin play in transport? Kinesin- protein that provides the legs, process fueled by ATP moves materials only from the soma to terminals (Anterograde) Dynein- protein, provides legs. moves materials from Terminal to Soma. (Retrograde)
What role do dendrites play in neural transmission? by acting as the antennae of the neuron. They are convered w/ thousand of synapse. The dendirtic mem. under the synapse has receptors that detect neurotransmitters int he cleft. the D recieve synaptic inputs from axon terminals.
What are the different ways of classifying neurons, and what are the classes in each of these methods? total # of neurites (axons & dentrites) Dendritic morphology (structure) Connections (w/ CNS) Axonal Length (short/long) Neurotransmitter
What is the most numerous glial cell in the brain? Astrocytes
What are some of the traditional, non-glamorous roles of glial cells? provide neurons w/ nutrients guide migrating neurons & their precursors during development disposing of the brains waste activated in the nervous system injury
What are some of the recent, sophistocated roles of glial cells? intergrate neuronal input modulate synaptic activity process signals related to learning and memory
What is the ratio of glial cells to neurons in the brain? 10:1
What are microglia? macrophage like phagocytes that was first recognized by Nissl. Can be typed as Type M1/M2 depending on how they are activated. Aid in innate or specific immunity. Produce cytokines. Can present antigen when they(microglia) are activated
What role do astrocytes play in neutransmission? differentiating into new neurons in life in parts of the brain Gap Junctions connect w/ nurons & capillary providing nutrients & metoblites associated w/ synapse associate & share info w neurons express functional receptors 4diff NTM release own NTM
excitable membranes cells capable of generating and conductiing action potentials. Examples include both nerve (axon) and muscle cells
resting membrane potential the difference in electrical charge across the membrane. The membrane potential or membrane voltage, maintianed by a cell when it isnt generating action potential. Neurons have RMP of about -65mV
electric current movement of electrical charge, represented by the symbol "I" and measured in amperes (amps)
electrical potential the force exerted on a electrically charged particle
electrical conductance the relative ability of an electrical charge to migrate from one point to another. Represented by "g" and measured in siemens (s). Conductance is the inverse of resistance and is related to electrical current and voltage by Ohm's law
electrical resistance the relative inability of an electrical charge to migrate from one point to another. Rep- "R". measured- ohms (w). Resistance is the inverse of conductance and is related to electrical current and voltage by Ohm's law.
membrane potential the voltage across a cell membrane represented by the symbol Vm
(ion)equilibrium potential the electrical potential difference that exactly balances an ionic concentration gradient, Eion;
How is information to the nervous system encoded? In the frequency of action potentials of individual neurons as well as in the distribution & # of neurons firing action potentials in a given nerve. Info is encoded in the pattern of electrical impulses
Describe the structure of an ion channel. 4-6 similar proteins that assemble together to form a pore. Subunit composition varies and gives them their diff properties. Ion selectivity-based upon diameter of pore and nature of R group. Have the ability to be gated
What is meant by “gated” channels? the idea of channels having the ability to open/close depending on the local environment.
What two factors determine how much current will flow? Electrical Potential Electrical Conductance
What two factors determine conductance? number of particles available to carry electrical charge The ease with which these particles can travel through space.
In figure 3.10a, why is there no current? There are not any channels to allow the passage of electrically charged ions from one side to the other, causing the conductance of the membrane to be zero
What are the two requirements for movement of an ion across a membrane? membrane possesses channels permeable to that ion There is an electrical potential difference across the membrane.
What determines the movement of an ion through an ion channel? Concentration gradient The difference in electrical potential across the membrane
Is the inside of a resting membrane positive or negative? negative
Understand figure 3.12, and the discussion in your notes. Be prepared to answer questions about the figures shown.
What is required to generate a potential difference across a cell membrane? Need- Ionic concentration gradient and Selective ionic permeability. By inserting a selectively permeable channel, only a certain ion can pass through, causing other ions to be left behind causing the inside of the cell to aquire a net negative charge.
Know the characteristics of membrane potential that are discussed on page 63.
What is the fundamental difference between figures 3.12 and 3.14? (Where are the positive and negative charges?) In figure 2.12 the charges are positively charges on the outside where as in figure 3.14 the inside is positively charged and the outside is negatively charged.
Assume that Ca2+ ions and Cl- ions are more concentrated on the outside of the cell, and draw a diagram that predicts the membrane potential charges in the same manner as Figures 3.12 and 3.14.
Why doesn’t the Nernst equation accurately predict the resting membrane potential? What equation must be used?
Know the relative concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl- ions inside and outside the resting cell. (This does NOT mean memorize the concentrations, it simply means know whether the concentration is higher inside or outside.) K+... Higher concentration INSIDE CELL Na+, Ca+, Cl-.... Higher concentration OUTSIDE CELL
What process expends as much as 70% of the ATP used by the brain? Sodium potassium pump. It is a pump that transports the ions across the membrane against their concentration gradient at expense of metabolic energy.
What two mechanisms exist to protect the brain from fluctuations in potassium concentrations? Blood Brain Barrier- walls of the brain capillaries that limits the movement of potassium into Extracellular fluids of the brain. Potassium Spatial buffering- astrocytes take up K+ . Helps dissipate the potassium over a large area.
Refer to the table at the end of your notes for a summary of electrical symbols and definitions.
What does the nissl stain do? useful to distinguish glia and neurons from one another. Allows histologist to study the arrangement of neurons in different parts of the brain.
What distinguishes an ion “pump” from an ion “channel”? Pumps- USE ATP. Ion pumps are enzymes that use energy released by the breakdown of ATP to transport certain ions across the membrane. Pumps play a critical role in neuronal signaling by transporting Na+ and Ca+ from the inside of the neuron to the outside
What type of transport mechanism is used for pumps and channels? Diffusion- moving ions from high-low concentrations. Causes ions to be pushed through channels in membrane. Ions move down a concentration gradient. Electricity- the use of an anode(positive)& cathode(negative) to move ions towards their opposite charg
Created by: katie.nelson8