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psych_exam 1

Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)  Importance of early life trauma in later mental disorders  Focuses on three parts of personality  Id: pleasure principle  Ego: reality principle  Superego: conscience
Psychoanalytic therapy to know and understand what is happening at the unconscious level in order to uncover the truth. The analyst uses free association, to search for forgotten and repressed memories
 Concepts important to psychoanalytic theory  Transference- occurs as the patient projects intense feelings onto the therapist  Countertransference
Neo-Freudianism  Karen Horney  She opposed Freud’s concept of “penis envy” and believed that women simply envied men’s power in the world. if a person has a healthy self- concept they are free to realize their full potential
 Horney’s 3 Basic Strategies  Moving toward  Moving away from  Moving against (I would also add “moving with”)
Interpersonal Theory (Sullivan)  Focuses on what goes on between people  All behavior is aimed at avoiding:  Anxiety  Threats to self-esteem
 Interpersonal therapy (IPT) a hands-on system in which therapists actively guide and challenge maladaptive behaviors and distorted views. The premise for this work is that if people are aware of their dysfunctional patterns and unrealistic expectations, they can modify them
Behavioral Theory  Classical conditioning (Pavlov)  Involuntary behavior can be conditioned to respond to neutral stimuli  Watson’s theory  Maladaptive behavior is learned  Operant conditioning (Skinner)  Voluntary behaviors are learned through consequences of r
 Behavioral Therapy concept  Maladaptive behavior is learned  Correct maladaptive behavior by rewarding and reinforcing adaptive behavior
 Methods of BT  Systematic Desensitization  Aversion therapy  Biofeedback,Neurofeedback
 Systematic Desensitization  The therapist tailors gradual exposure to a feared situation or object in order to decrease fear and stress, phobias
 Aversion therapy  A maladaptive behavior is paired with a punishment or unpleasant stimuli to change the behavior.
 Biofeedback,Neurofeedback  a technique in which individuals learn to control physiological responses such as breathing rates, hr, bp, brain waves, temp.  A maladaptive behavior is paired with a punishment or unpleasant stimuli to change the behavior.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)  Beck  Modify negative thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. cognitive distortions
All-or-nothing thinking Thinking in black and white, reducing complex outcomes into absolutes
Overgeneralization Using a bad outcome (or a few bad outcomes) as evidence that nothing will ever go right again
Labeling A form of generalization where a characteristic or event becomes definitive and results in an overly harsh label for self or others
Mental filter Focusing on a negative detail or bad event and allowing it to taint everything else
Disqualifying the positive Maintaining a negative view by rejecting information that supports a positive view as being irrelevant, inaccurate, or accidental
Jumping to conclusions Making a negative interpretation despite the fact that there is little or no supporting evidence
Magnification or minimization Exaggerating the importance of something (such a personal failure or the success of others) or reducing the importance of something (such as a personal success or the failure of others)
Catastrophizing Catastrophizing is an extreme form of magnification in which the very worst is assumed to be a probable outcome.
Emotional reasoning Drawing a conclusion based on an emotional state
 Methods of CBT  Identify negative patterns of thinking (cognitive distortions)  Use ABC format for recording and analyzing  Activating event  Automatic beliefs  Consequences of beliefs  Reformat negative thinking
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) Developed by Marsha Linehan. Used with patients who have difficulty managing their emotions and impulses.  Uses some cognitive therapy techniques  Many skill building exercises
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development  Stages of cognition • Sensorimotor stage (0 to 2 years). • Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years). • Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years). • Formal operational stage (11 years to adulthood).
Sensorimotor stage (0 to 2 years). By about 9 months of age, object permanence is achieved and the child can conceptualize objects that are no longer visible. Part of the delight of the game of peek-a-boo can be explained by this emerging skill as the child begins to anticipate the face hi
• Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years). Operations is a term for thinking about objects. During this stage children are not yet able to think abstractly or generalize qualities in the absence of specific objects, but rather think in a concrete fashion. Egocentric thinking is demonstrated throug
• Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years) logical thought appears, and abstract problem solving is possible. The child is able to see a situation from another's point of view and can take into account a variety of solutions to a problem. Conservation is possible, and two small cups of liquid can
• Formal operational stage (11 years to adulthood). Conceptual reasoning commences at roughly the same time as does puberty. At this stage the child's basic abilities to think abstractly and problem solve mirror those of an adult.
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development  Describes 8 stages from infancy to older adulthood table 3-2  Each stage consists of central age-appropriate tasks  Resolution of each stage can be positive or negative
Humanistic Theory  Motivational psychotherapy (Maslow) and Rogers  Basic needs must be met before progressing to higher needs  Physiological, safety, love
belonging, esteem, self actualization, self-transient  Motivational psychotherapy (Maslow) and Rogers  Basic needs must be met before progressing to higher needs  Physiological, safety, love
Theory of Object Relations (Mahler)  Focus on progression from infant’s inability to see self as separate from mother to physically and psychologically differentiated toddler
Theories of moral development  Kohlberg Pre-Conventional Level Conventional Level Post-Conventional Level
Pre-Conventional Level Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment. Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange.
Conventional Level Stage 3: Good Interpersonal Relationships. Stage 4: Maintaining the Social Order.
Post-Conventional Level Stage 5: Social Contract and Individual Rights. Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles.
Created by: mel_rosado5