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The Heart

Chapter 14

Continuous one-way circuit of blood through the blood vessels is known as the Circulation
The prime mover that propels blood throughout the body is the? Heart
The hearts ?, the pointed inferior portion, directed toward the left. Apex
The broad, superior ? is the area of attachment for the large vessels carrying blood into and out of the Heart Base
The ? is a hollow organ with walls formed of 3 different layers. Heart
? is a thin, smooth layer of epithelial cells that lines the hearts interior. Endocardium
? The heart muscel, thickest layer, pumps blood through the vessels. Myocardium
Innermost layer, provides a smooth surface for easy flow as blood travels thru the heart. Extensions of this membrane cover the flaps (cusps) of the heart valves. Endocardium
Is a serous membrane that forms thin, outermost layer of the heart wall. Epicardium
Is the sac that encloses the heart. Also called Visceral or Epicardium Pericardium
This sacs outermost and heaviest layer is the ? Fibrous Pericardium
? anchors this pericardial layer to the diaphragm. Connective Tissue
A ? lines this fibrous sac and folds back at the bone to cover the hearts surface. Serous Membrane
Outer layer of the serous membrane is called ? Parietal layer
Inner layer of the serous membrane is called? also known as Epicardium Visceral layer
A thin film of fluid between these two layers reduces friction. Visceral and Parietal
? are lightly striated based on alternating actin and myosin filaments. Cardiac Muscle cells
Cardiac Muscle cells have a single cell nucleus and are ? controlled Involuntary
There are specialized ? between cardiac muscle cells that show faintly under a microscope Partitons
? are actually modified plasma membranes that firmly attach adjacent cells to each other, but allow for rapid transfer of electrical impulses between them. Intercalated Disks
Innermost layer of heart wall, thin, smooth layer of epithelial cells, lines interior chambers and covers heart valves. Endocardium
Outermost layer of the heart wall, thin serous membrane, covers the heart and forms the visceral layer of the serous pericardium Epicardium
middle layer of heart wall, thick layer of cardiac muscle, contracts to pump blood into the arteries. Myocardium
? tissue is the branching of the muscle fibers (cells) Cardiac Muscle
? and the branching cellular networks allow cardiac muscle cells to contract in a coordinated manner. Intercalated Disks
Right heart and Left heart are a double? Pump
Right side pumps blood low in oxygen to the lungs through the ? Pulmonary circuit
The left side pumps oxygenated blood to the remainder of the body through the? Systemic Circuit
There are ? Chambers in the heart. 4
Upper chambers on the right and left sides, the ? are mainly blood receiving chambers. Atria
Lower chambers on right and left side, the ? are forceful pumps Ventricles
? thin-walled chamber, receives blood returning from the body tissues. Its blood is low in oxygen, carried in veins, blood vessels lead back to heart. Right Atrium
? brings blood from the head, chest, and Arms. Superior Vena Cava
? delivers blood from the trunk and legs. Inferior Vena Cava
A 3rd vessel opens into the ? , brings blood from the heart muscle itself. Right Atrium
? pumps the venous blood received from right atrium to the lungs. Right Ventricle
Pumps blood into a large ? (divides into right and left Pulmonary arteries), these arteries carry blood to the lungs. Pulmonary Trunk
Pulmonary Arteries carry ___ blood unlike other arteries. Deoxygenated
Other arteries which are a vessel that takes blood from the heart to the tissues, carry ____ blood. Oxygenated
? Receives blood in high oxygen content as it returns from the lungs in Pulmonary Veins. Left Atrium
___ Veins carry oxygenated blood. Pulmonary
Other Veins carry ? blood. Deoxygenated
? The chamber with the thickest wall, pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. Left Ventricle
The blood from the left ventricle goes into the ? first, then branching systemic arteries that take blood to tissues. Aorta
This is the largest Artery. Aorta
This is the lower pointed region of the heart, formed by wall of left ventricle. Hearts Apex
? partitions that separate each of the hearts chambers from each other. Septum
This separates the 2 Atria Interatrial Septum
This separates the 2 Ventricles Interventricular Septum
The septa, like the heart wall consist largely of? Myocardium
Outermost layer, fibrous sac, encloses and protects the heart; anchors heart to surrounding structures. Fibrous Pericardium
Between the fibrous pericardium and the myocardium, doubled membranous sac with fluid between layers. Fluid reduces friction with in the pericardium as the heart functions. Serous Pericardium
Lines the fibrous pericardium, serous membrane, forms outer layer of the serous pericardium. Parietal layer
Surface of the heart, serous membrane, forms inner layer of serous pericardium. AKA Epicardium Visceral layer
Entrance valves, named so because they are between the Atria and Ventricles. Atrioventricular Valves
Exit valves, named so because each flap of these valves resembles a half-moon. Semilunar Valves
Has 3 cusps (flaps) that open and close. Also called Tricuspid Valve Right Atrioventricular Valve
When the Right Atrioventricular valve is open Blood ___ right atrium to Right Ventricle. Flows
When the Right Atrioventricular valve is Closed Blood cannot return to right Atrium, flows forward into the ? Pulmonary Arterial Trunk
Has 2 heavy cusps that permit blood to flow freely from left atrium to left ventricle. (Bicuspid) Left Atrioventricular Valve or Mitral Valve
When the Mitral valve cusp closes because the ? begins to contract. This closure prevents blood from returning to the left atrium and ensures forward flow of blood into aorta Left Ventricle
These are in the walls of ventricles, thin fibrous thread that attaches both the R&L AV valves to columnar Muscles Papillary Muscles
This is the function of Papillary muscles, is to stabilize the valve flaps when the ventricles contract so that the bloods force will not push them up into Atria Chordae Tendinaea
Papillary muscles help prevent ? of blood when the heart beats. Backflow
Semi-lunar valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk that leads to the lungs. Pulmonary Valve
The higher pressure in the pulmonary artery, closes the valve and prevents blood from returning to the ventricle. Back Pressure
A semi-lunar valve located between the left ventricle and the Aorta. Aortic Valve
Closes aortic valve and prevents the back flow of blood from aorta into ventricle Back Pressure
Only the ? comes in contact with the blood that flows through the heart chambers. Endocardium
? must have its own blood vessels to provide oxygen and nourishment and to remove waste products. Myocardium
Myocardium blood vessels provide the ? circulation Coronary
Main arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle are the right and left ? Coronary Arteries
What arteries are the first to branch off the aorta Coronary Arteries
The coronary circulation is the blood supply to the ? Myocardium
Upper right chamber, receives blood from the venae cavae and the coronary sinus; pumps blood into the right ventricle. Right Atrium
Lower right chamber,receives blood from right atrium and pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk; branches carry blood to lungs to be oxygenated Right Ventricle
Upper left chamber, receives oxygenated blood coming back to the heart from the lungs in the pulmonary Veins; pumps blood into left ventricle Left Atrium
Lower left chamber, receives blood from the left atrium and pumps blood into the aorta to be carried to tissues in the systemic circuit Left Ventricle
Located between the right atrium and right ventricle Right AV valve
Located at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk. Pulmonary semilunar valve
Located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Left AV valve
Located at the entrance to the aorta. Aortic Semilunar Valve
Prevents blood from flowing back up into the right atrium when the right ventricle contracts (systole) Right AV valve
Valve with three half-moon shaped cusps located at the entrance to the aorta. Aortic Semilunar valve
Prevents blood from flowing back up into the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts (systole) Left AV valve
Valve with three half moon shaped cusps located at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk. Pulmonary semilunar valve
Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle when the right ventricle relaxes (diastole) Pulmonary semilunar valve
Valve with two cusps;bicuspid or mitral valve. Left AV valve
Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle when the left ventricle relaxes (diastole) Aortic Semilunar valve
Valve with three cusps; tricuspid valve Right AV valve
The active phase of heart muscle contraction is called? Systole
The resting period that follows systole is called? Diastole
One complete sequence of heart contraction and relaxation is called? Cardiac Cycle
Each Cardiac cycle represents one what? Heart beat
At rest, one cardiac cycle takes an average of ? to complete. 0.8 Seconds
The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute is termed? Cardiac Output (CO)
The product of Cardiac output, the volume of blood ejected from the ventricle with each beat is called? Stroke Volume (SV)
The number of times the heart beats per min is termed? Heart Rate (HR)
CO= HRxSV Cardiac output equals Heart Rate times Stroke Volume
two of the structures that form the hearts conduction system are tissue masses called? Nodes
The remainder of the structures that form the hearts conduction system besides the nodes consists of specialized ? that branch through the myocardium. Fibers
The ? Node is located in the upper wall of the right atrium in a small depression described as a sinus. Sinoatrial Node
The node that initiates the heartbeats by generating an action potential at regular intervals is called? Sinoatrial Node
The second node, located in the interatrial septum at the bottom of the right atrium is called the ? Atrioventricular Node
The SA node sets the rate of heart contractions and is commonly called what? Pacemaker
The Atrioventricular bundle is also known as ? and is located at the top of the interventricular septum. Bundle of His
This "bundle" has branches that extend to all parts of the ventricular walls. Atrioventricular bundle
Conduction fibers, also called ?, travel in a branching network throughout the myocardium of the ventricles. Purkinje fibers
? allow the rapid flow of impulses throughout the heart muscle. Intercalated Disks
First step in impulse travel, the ? node generates the electrical impulse that begins the heartbeat. Sinoatrial Node
Second step in impulse travel, Excitiation wave travels throughout the muscle of each atrium causing Atria to contract. Impulse travels directly to the AV node by means of fibers in wall of atrium that make up the ? Internodal Pathways
Third step in impulse travel, Atrivoventricular node is stimulated. Atria contract and complete the filling of the ? before the ventricles contract. Ventricles
4th Step in impulse travel, Excitation wave travels rapidly through the ? and then throughout the ventricular walls by means of the bundle branches and ? Bundle of His & Purkinje Fibers
The entire ventricular ? contracts almost at the same time. Musculature
A normal heart rhythm originating at the SA node is termed? Sinus Rhythm
A relatively slow heart rate of less than 60 beats/minute. Bradycardia
Refers to a heart rate of more than 100 beats/minute. Tachycardia
A regular variation in heart rate caused by changes in rate and deep breathing, it is normal phenomenon Sinus Arrhythmia
Also called extrasystole, is a beat that comes before the expected beat. May be initiated by caffeine, nicotine, or psychological stress or people with heart disease. Premature Beat
The first heart sound, longer, lower-pitched sound that occurs at the start of ventricular systole. Lub
The second heart sound, shorter and sharper. Occurs at the beginning of ventricular relaxation and is caused largely by sudden closure of semilunar valves. Dup
An abnormal heart sound is called? and is due to faulty valve action. Murmur
An abnormal sound caused by any structural change in the heart or vessels connected with the heart is called? Organic Murmur
if a valve fails to close tightly, and blood leaks back what is heard? Murmur
To differentiate normal sounds from abnormal sounds, they are properly called what? Functional murmurs
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is ? systole
The small mass of tissue that starts the heartbeat is the ? Sinoatrial Node
The ? system is the main influence on the rate and strength of heart contractions. Autonomic Nervous System
Congenital heart disease is a defect ? present at birth
Rheumatic fever is caused by certain? Streptococci
? commonly causes narrowing of the coronary vessels. Atherosclerosis
ECG and EKG stand for? Electrocardiography
? is the technique used to open a restricted coronary artery with a balloon catheter Coronary Angioplasty
means "inflammation of the heart's lining" most commonly refers to inflammation of the endocardium covering the valves and valvular disease. endocarditis
is inflammation of the heart muscle Myocarditis
Refers to inflammation of the serous membrane on the heart surface as well as the lining of the pericardial sac. Pericarditis
Inflammatory diseases are often caused by ? but may also be secondary to other types of respiratory or systemic diseases. Infection
Originates with an attack of rheumatic fever in childhood or youth. Rheumatic heart disease
Involves the walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease
is caused by deterioration of the heart tissues and is frequently the result of long-standing disorders, such as high blood pressure Heart Failure
The fetal heart has a small hole called ? located in the septum between the right and left atria. Foramen ovale
Failure of the foramen ovale to close is one cause of an abnormal opening known as? Atrial septal defect
The ? in the fetus is a small blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery and aorta so that some blood headed toward the lungs will enter aorta instead. Ductus Arteriosus
Persistence of the vessel after birth is described as Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Most common single congenital heart defect is a hole in the septum between the 2 ventricles, disorder called? Ventricular Septal Defect
Other congenital defects that tax the heart involve ? of outward blood flow. Restriction
? is a localized narrowing of the aortic arch. Coarctation of the aorta
The most common combination is that of 4 specific defects known as? Tetralogy of Fallot
Pulmonary artery stenosis; interventricular septal defect; aortic displacement to the right; right ventricular hypertrophy ; together are known as tetralogy of Fallot. What commonly have this disorder? "Blue Babies"
The blueness / Cyanosis of the skin and mucous membranes is caused by a relative lack of? Oxygen
Antibodies formed to combat Rheumatic fever also attack the heart valves, producing a condition known as? Rheumatic Endocarditis
The mitral valve may not open sufficiently. Mitral stenosis
the mitral valve may not close effectively. mitral regurgitation
the lumen inside the vessel may gradually narrow because of a progressive deposit of fatty material known as? Plaque
This process called ? causes thickening and hardening of the vessels with a loss of elasticity. Atherosclerosis
The vessels narrowing leads to ? which is a lack of blood supply to the areas fed by those arteries. Ischemia
In the heart, thrombus formation results in a life threatening condition known as? Coronary thrombosis
Sudden closure of a coronary vessel Occlusion
Sudden occlusion with complete obstruction of blood flow is commonly known as a? Heart Attack
Area of tissue damaged in a heart attack is called? Infarct
What is the medical term for heart attack? Myocardial Infarction
The oxygen deprived tissue will undergo necrosis this means? death
How is a MI diagnosed? ECG
The enzyme normal to muscle cells that is released in increased amounts when any muscle is damaged is called? Creatine Kinase
A protein that regulates muscle cell contraction is called? Troponin
Inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle causes a characteristic discomfort called? Angina Pectoris
Angina pectoris is felt in the region of the heart,and in what arm and shoulder? Left
What disease is common cause of angina pectoris Coronary artery disease
An abnormal rhythm of the heart beat is termed? Arrhythmia
Extremely rapid but coordinated contractions numbering up to 300 beats per min is called a? flutter
An episode of rapid, wild, and uncoordinated heart muscle contractions is called? fibrillation
A device that generates a strong electrical current to discharge all the cardiac muscle cells at once to allow a normal rhythm to resume is called? Defibrillator
An interruption of electrical impulses in the hearts conduction system is called Heart block
The death rate for heart attacks is ? when treatment is delayed. High
The American Heart Association added training in the use of the ? to the basic course in CPR. Automated External Defibrillator
Drugs given during a MI that act to dissolve clots blocking the coronary arteries Thrombolytic
A ? is given in a heart attack patient to bypass damaged vessels Vascular graft
Some patients need a ? pacemaker to maintain normal heart rhythm. Artificial
In heart failure additional mechanisms cause the retention of fluid leading to the name? Congestive Heart Failure
Heredity, environmental factors, diseases, and personal habits are all variation in the way? Heart Ages
By 70 years of age the cardiac output may decrease by as much as? 35%
Prevention of heart ailments is based on identification of cardiovascular risk factors and? Modification of those factors that can be changed.
Age,gender,heredity,and body type are all risk factors that? Cannot be modified
Smoking,physical inactivity, weight,saturated fat in diet, high blood pressure (hypertension) diabetes and gout are all risk factors that? can be modified
Experienced listeners can gain much information about the heart by using a? Stethoscope
Used to convey sounds from within the patients body to an examiners ear. Stethoscope
used to record electrical changes produced as the heart muscle contracts. Electrocardiograph (ECG/EKG)
The Electrocardiograph represents the electrical activity as? Waves
P wave represents activity of the ? Atria
T waves represent the activity of the? Ventricles
Many people with heart disease undergo? Catheterization
In right heart ? an extremely thin tube is passed thru the veins of the right arm or right groin and then into the right side of the heart. Right Heart Catheterization
An instrument used for examining deep structures with xrays fluoroscope
Consists of waves generated at a frequency above the human ears range of sensitivity. Ultrasound
High frequency sound waves are sent to the heart from a small instrument on the chest surface. Echocardiography ( Ultrasound cardiography)
Movement of echoes is traced on an electronic instrument called an ? and recorded on film. Oscilloscope
One of the oldest drugs for heart treatment and still most important for most is? Digitalis
Slows and strengthens heart muscle contractions, obtained form the leaf of the foxglove plant. Digitalis
Several forms of ? are used to relieve angina pectoris. dialtes the vessels in coronary circulation and improves heart blood supply. Nitroglycerin
These "beta blockers" control sympathetic stimulation of the heart, reduce rate and strength of heart contractions and reduces hearts oxygen demand. Beta-Adrenergic blocking agents
Used to regulate the rate and rhythm of heartbeat Antiarrhythmic Agents
Aid in the treatment of coronary heart disease and hypertension by several mechanisms. Slow calcium-channel blockers
May dilate vessels, control the force of heart contractions, regulate conduction through the atrioventricular node. actions are based on fact that calcium ions must enter muscle cells before contraction can occur Slow Calcium-channel blockers
Valuable drugs for some heart patients, used to prevent clot formation . Anticoagulants
Chemically known as acetylsalicylic Acid is inexpensive, used for pain and inflammation, reduces blood clotting by interfering with platelet activity. Aspirin
A device implanted under the skin supplies regular impulses to stimulate the heart beat. Artificial pacemaker
The restoration of normal heartbeat by either electric shock or drugs is called? Cardioversion
Device that detects a rapid abnormal rhythm and delivers a direct shock to the heart is called a ICD known as? Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator
This machine makes possible many operations of the heart and other thoracic organs. Heart-lung machine
The term used to describe when blood is rid of air bubbles while in a machine. defoamed
long name for CABG, relieves obstruction of coronary arteries and is common and often successful treatment. Coronary artery bypass graft
A less invasive procedure used to open restricted arteries in the heart and other areas of the body. Angioplasty
To prevent repeated blockage a small tube called a ? may be inserted in the vessel to keep it open. Stent
In coronary angioplasty, a fluoroscope is used to guide a catheter with a ? to the affected area. balloon
Diseased valves may become so deformed and scarred from ? that they are ineffective and often obstructive. Endocarditis
When valves are ineffective or obstructive ? is the best treatment. Valve replacement
This device draws blood from a ventricle and pumps it into the aorta or pulmonary artery. VAD, Ventricular assist device
The right AV valve has ? cusps and the Left Av valve has ? Right Av 3 & Left AV is 2
The ? pathways connect the SA and AV nodes. Internodal
The ? carries blood into the systemic circuit Aorta
The ? ventricle has the thickest wall. Left
The ? is the thickest layer of the heart wall. Myocardium
The AV (tricuspid and mitral) valves close when the ? contracts. Ventricles
The semilunar (pulmonary and aortic)valves ? when the Ventricles contract. Open
Created by: lonelystar884