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ENVR 110

Industrial & Municipal Pollution Control

What is pollution? Any change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water or land that can affect the health, survival, or activities of human beings or other forms of life in and undesirable way.
List three types of pollutants Rapidly biodegradable Slowly biodegradable Nonbiodegradable
Give an example of rapidly biodegradable pollutants Animal and crop waste
Give an example of slowly biodegradable pollutants Persistent; DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and PCB (polychlorinated byphenyls)
Give an example of nonbiodegradable pollutants Mercury, lead compounds and some radioactive substances
List two sources of pollution Natural Human (anthropogenic)
Describe natural pollutants Usually dispersed over large areas and often diluted or degraded to harmless levels by natural processes
Describe human, or anthropogenic, pollutants -Often occurs in concentrated forms in or near urban and industrial areas -Most common problems are when large amounts of pollution are concentrated in relatively small volumes of air, water, and soil
Why do we perform pollution control? Protect the public's health and the environment
How do we perform pollution control? Fulfill regulatory requirements Protect natural systems Manage and control sewage and stormwater Manage and control solid and hazardous waste Control air and noise pollution
Pollution control is mostly performed to prevent the spread of what types of diseases? Communicable Noninfectious
Describe communicable diseases Caused by microbes Spread by a mode of transmission direct indirect (airborne, vector borne, vehicle borne)
Describe noninfectious diseases Toxic exposures that can lead to cancers, organ damage, developmental problems
What is the study of harmful levels of pollutants called? Toxicology
How is the concentration of pollutants typcially expressed? Parts per million (ppm) Milligrams per liter (mg/L) Parts per billion (ppb) Micrograms per liter
What is an additive effect? Adding the observed effects of pollutants or toxins together
What is a synergistic effect? Pollutants or toxins acting together to cause a greater harmful effect than individually
What are the two main philosophies on pollution control? -Pollution control should not be increased at the expense of economic growth (can provide funds for dealing with environmental concerns) -Insufficient pollution control leads to short and long term damages that will reduce economic productivity
Describe air pollution Causes breathing problems in urban and industrial areas Existed for centuries
Describe soil and groundwater pollution A few decades ago landfills were common and uncontrolled and chemical spills were not addressed
Describe surface water pollution Wastewater and chemical discharge directly to lakes and rivers (e.g. Cuyahoga River Burning)
What is FIFRA? Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Formed in 1947 Pesticides must be registered with the EPA before being marketed
What is NEPA? National Environmental Policy Act Formed in 1970 Requires each federal agency to use Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) No enforcement agency
What is RCRA? Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Formed in 1976 Deals with both municipal and hazardous waste to encourage resource recovery and recycling Enforcement agency: EPA
What is CWA? Federal Clean Water Act Formed in 1972 Restore and maintain the "chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters" Enforcement agency: EPA
What is SDWA? Safe Drinking Water Act Formed in 1974 Establish federal drinking water standards Protect underground water sources Enforcement agency: EPA
What is CAA? Federal Clean Air Act Formed in 1970 Enforcement agency: EPA
What is CERCLA? Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act "Superfund" Formed in 1980 Provides system for cleaning up chemical and hazardous material Enforcement agency: EPA
What is AHERA? Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act Requires certain procedures to be followed for asbestos abatement in school buildings Ties to OSHA Enforcement agency: EPA
What is TSCA? Toxic Substances Control Act Formed in 1976 Regulates newly created chemicals entering into commerce for the first time and current existing chemicals Enforcement agency: EPA
What is the Ocean Dumping Act? Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act Regulates what can be dumped in the ocean and protects marine environment Enforcement agency: EPA, U.S. Coast Guard
What is OSHA? Occupational Safety and Health Act Formed in 1970 "Assures so fas as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions" Enforcement agency: OSHA(dministration)
What is AEA? Atomic Energy Act Formed in 1954 Provide controls over the possession, development, and use of radioactive materials Enforcement agency: Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission
What is HMTA? Hazardous Materials Transportation Act Formed in 1975 Established criteria for transporting hazardous materials Enforcement agency: Department of Transportation
What are the three parts to an atomic structure? Element Compound Atom
What is an element? Substance composed of all the same kind of atom Listed on the periodic table
What is a compound? Contains two or more elements chemically combined
What is an atom? Basic unit of an element Composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
What is the periodic table? Lists elements according to their atomic number Provides name and symbol of the element Atomic weight of element (avg. mass numner of all atoms that make up the element) How reactive element is
What are three chemical bonds? Ionic - positive and negative ion are attracted to one another Covalent - atoms share electrons Hydrogen - weak attraction (usually between water molecules)
What is a solution? Usually described for liquids, but can also be for solids and gasses, especially in water (aqueous solutions)
What is a solvent? Material present in largest amounts
What is a solute? Material present in smaller amounts
What is a saturated solution? A solution that has as much solute dissolved in it as it can hold
What is solubility? Ability of a solute to dissolve in a solvent Depends on temperature, pressure, and what else is dissolved in that solution
What is a suspended particle? Small particles of material larger than atoms suspended in water -the smaller the suspended particle the longer it takes to settle
What is a colloidal suspension? Very fine particles (less than 0.1 micron in diameter) Resist settling Can be removed by adding chemicals to get them to settle out (enlargement or changing of molecules)
How are concentrations expressed? Volume - mg/L Weight - mg/kg Air - mg/M3 or ppm Water - mg/L, ppm or ppb Soil/waste - mg/kg, ppm
Describe acids Has a pH less than 7 (increase in the H+ concentratoin in an aqueous solution) Often can corrode metal and dissolve salts Tastes sour
Describe bases Has a pH greater than 7 (increase in the OH- concentration in an aqueous solution) Caustic, corrosive, to hair, skin and other organic substances Tastes bitter
What are common bases? Sodium hydroxide Ammonia Potassium hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide
What are common organic chemicals? Wood Flesh Cotton Petroleum Methane Solvents Plastics
What are common organic pollutants? Human, animal, food wastes Industrial chemicals Petroleum hydrocarbons (fuels and oils) Many pesticides Solvents PCB's
What are common inorganic pollutants? Metals Most acids and bases Some fertilizers Most sediment
What is the hydrologic cycle? How water moves in and around earth
List examples of surface water Lakes Streams Ponds Wetlands Estuaries
List examples of groundwater sources Aquifers Subsurface saturated zones
Where is most industrial and municipal wastewater discharged? Surface water
What is turbidity? Measure of the light-scatteirng effect caused by suspended particles in water Impacts how clear the water is
What is DO? Dissolved oxygen Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given quanitity of water at a particular temperature and atmospheric pressure Usually listed mg/L
Why is DO important? Indicates the ability of a body of surface water to support fish and most other forms of aquatic life Low DO = fish will die from suffocation
What can reduce DO? Biodegradable wastes Aerobic decomposers can reduce the supply of dissolved oxygen
What is the normal percentage of oxygen in the air? 21%
What is BOD? Biochemical oxygen demand Measure of the amount of oxygen consumed in the biological and chemical processes that break down organic matter in water
Why is BOD important? Higher BOD, the higher the organic content of the water, the more dissolved oxygen that will be used to decompose their organics
What is BODx? Amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposition to break down the organic materials in a given volume of water over an x day period
List sources of BOD to waterways Natural - topsoil, leaves, animal waste Non-point - animal manure, fertilizers, urban runoff Point - effluents from pulp, paper mills, wastewater treatment plants, textiles, food processing plants, failing septic systems
What is COD? Chemical oxygen demand Measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all compounds, both organic and inorganic in water Sometimes measured instead of BOD
List the sizes of pollutant particles Settleable >100 microns, largely organics Supracolloidal 1-100 microns, largely organics Colloidal 1nm - 1 micron, bacteria and viruses Soluble <1nm, inorganics
List four types of solids Suspended Dissolved Settleable Volatile
What is a suspended solid? Those that can be retained on a filter
What is a dissolved solid? Solids that pass through the filter Determined by a mass balance after evaporating the sample
What is a settleable solid? Coarser fraction that will settle due to gravity
What is a volatile solid? Solid that can be burned off or volatilized at 550 degrees Celcius
Created by: kns80