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Woodruff-8th grade

Woodruff-8th grade test- Earth Science

Lithosphere is the earth's (water, rock, air) layer rock
Hydrosphere is the Earth's (water, rock, air) layer water
Atmosphere is the Earth's (water, rock, air) layer air
Weathering means (breakdown, carry away) breakdown
Erosion means (breakdown, carry away) carry away
Physical weathering breakdown and keep the same substance (root action)
Chemical weathering breakdown and get a new substance (rust)
Name four forces of erosion gravity, wind, water and glaciers
Wind and moving water make sediments what shape? round
Gravity and glaciers make sediments in what shape? angular
Earthquakes, volcanoes, and faults are found near _____. plate boundaries
Earthquakes produce what kind of waves? P, S, and L waves
____ waves are primary waves and go through solids and liquids. P
_____ waves are secondary waves that only go through solids. S
_____ waves are longitudinal waves that run along the earth's surface. L
The _____ is the outer layer of earth. crust
The ocean crust is (thinner, thicker) than the continental crust. thinner
What is the earth's second layer? (crust, mantle, inner core, outer core) mantle
______ in the mantle moves in currents which causes the tectonic plates to move. magma
Which layer of the earth is solid? (crust, mantle, inner core, outer core) inner core
Which layer of the earth is liquid? (crust, mantle, inner core, outer core) outer core
The outer core of the Earth's crust is (solid, liquid). liquid
All the continents fit together as one super continent called Pangea
Magma in the mantle rises through the cracks in the ocean floor causing _________. seafloor spreading
Sea floor spreading is proven by ______ of the rocks with their relationship to the _____ of the crack. age, distance
Daily conditions of the atmosphere weather
Yearly average of the daily weather. climate
Name the four layers of the atmosphere troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere
Which layer of the atmosphere contains water? troposphere
What are the two most abundant gases in the atmosphere? nitrogen (78%) and oxygen ( 21%)
Air temperature is measured with a thermometer
air pressure is measured with a barometer
Humidity is measured with a hygrometer or psychrometer
moisture in the air humidity
wind is caused by uneven heating of the earth's surface
wind speed is measured with a (an) anemometer
wind direction measured with wind vane
Wind is named by _____ the direction in which it came from
Name the three cloud types cumulus, stratus and cirrus
Name five forms of precipitation rain, hail, snow, sleet, and drizzle
Rain is measured with a ____ rain guage
Incoming solar radiation insolation
Warm air (rises, sinks) and cold air (rises, sinks). rises, sinks
What causes the different angles of insolation? the earth's round shape
Deflection or turning of the wind and ocean currents caused by the earth's rotation coriolis effect
Contains the processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and transpiration water cycle
Climate is affected by 3 things latitude, bodies of water and mountains
The side of the mountain that is near the body of water and receives wind and clouds windward side
The side of the mountain that has very little wind and drier climate leeward side
Air mass gets its characteristics from ____ the area it's formed over
Name the four main types of air masses polar, tropical, continental, and maritime
What type of pressure systems bring dry weather and clear skies? high
What type of pressure system brings cloudy and damp weather? low
A _____ front is when a cold mass pushes on a warm mass cold
A _____ front is when a warm mass pushes on a cold mass warm
______ is found along fronts precipitation
Lines that connect points of equal temperatures isotherms
Lines that connect points of equal pressure isobars
Harmful substances that cause pollution pollutants
What is it called when carbon dioxide is trapped in the atmosphere causing global warming? greenhouse effect
The earth's spin on an axis is called _____ rotation
The earth's rotation rate is ____ degrees per hour in ____ hours 15, 24
The apparent motion of the sun and the length of the day is determined by rotation
Orbit around the sun revolution
Earth's revolution rate 365 days
The pull of gravity is (weaker, stronger) closer to the sun stronger
List the three reasons for the seasons the earth's tilt, revolution, and parallelism of the axis
The winter solstice is on ______ Dec. 21
The summer solstice is on ______ June 21
The vernal equinox is on ______ March 21
The autumnal equinox is on ______ Sept. 23
9 hours of daylight, and we are in perihelion (close to the sun) winter solstice- Dec. 21
15 hours of daylight and we are in aphelion (far from the sun) summer solstice- June 21
12 hours of daylight and the sun strikes at the equator March 21 and Sept. 23
The lower the angle of the sun, the _____ your shadow longer
Low angles of the sun occur _____ and at _____ winter, sunrise and sunset
_____ model is when the sun is in the center heliocentric
Model when the earth in the center geocentric
Name the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
_____ separates the solid planets from the gaseous planets which are between Mars and Jupiter Asteroid belt
The farther the planet is from the sun, the longer the _______ revolution
The ____ orbits the Earth and spins on its axis at a rate of _____ days Moon, 29 1/2
The moon's revolution equals its _____ rotation
The ______ of the moon are the changes in the shape caused by the earth's view of the moon phases
The six phases of the moon are new, crescent, half, gibbous, and full
A _____ occurs when the earth, sun and moon line up eclipse
A _____ eclipse occurs when the moon passes through the earth's shadow lunar
A ____ eclipse occurs when the moon casts its shadow on the earth solar
The earth's _____ are caused by the moon's gravity tides
In space a rock is called a _____ meteoroid
In the atmosphere, a rock is called a _____ and on earth it is called a ____ meteor, meteorite
The earth is in the solar system which is in the ______ galaxy which is in the ______ Milky Way, universe
light year distance light travels in one year
The color of the star determines its _____ temperature
A red star has a ______ temperature cool
A blue star has a ______ temperature hot
______ is the main fuel of the sun Hydrogen
______ and dust make a star. Gas
Star life cycle: star to stable star to compact star to _______ to nova to _______ red giant, white dwarf
All rocks are composed of ______. minerals
Physical properties of minerals are ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____. streak, hardness, color, luster, cleavage
Chemical properties of minerals are tested by the _____ test acid
The internal arrangement of atoms determines the mineral's _______. properties
Hot liquid rock below the crust is called ______ and above the crust is called _____. magma, lava
Igneous rock is made by cooling ______. magma
Sedimentary rocks are made by ______ and ______ compression and compaction
_______ rocks contain fossils. sedimentary
_____ rocks are any rocks exposed to magma again causing heat and pressure Metamorphic
The ____ rock layer is on the bottom. oldest
A wavy line in a rock means erosion
Black hair-like lines in rocks means _____. magma made contact
Latitude lines are _____ and ____ and never touch. North, South
Longitude lines are ____ and ____ and meet at the poles. east, west
Contour lines connect equal points of ______. elevation
The contour _____ connect equal points of elevation. lines
As you increase in elevation or altitude, air pressure _____. decreases
Created by: seagullq