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Chapter 39 Potter

Oxygenation

QuestionAnswer
The cardiac system delivers oxygen, nutrients, and other substances to the tissues and removes_________ through waste products of cellular metabolism through the cardiac pump, circulatory vascular system, and the integration of other systems (resp/digestive/renal)
pumping action of the heart that's essential to maintaining oxygen delivery myocardial pump
cardiac output amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle each minute
The adequacy of the cardiac output for an individual is known as the: cardiac index (CI)
Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each contraction is the: stroke volume
_______ is essentially the end-diastolic volume. preload
This is the resistance to left ventricular ejection: the work the heart must overcome to fully eject blood from the left ventricle afterload
The pacemaker of the heart SA node
reflects the electrical activity of the conduction system electrocardiogram
Normal sequence on ECG: NSR, normal sinus rhythm
The process of moving gas into and out of the lungs ventilation
Active process, stimulated by chemical receptors in the aorta (causes chest expansion): inspiration
Passive process that depends on the elastic recoil properties of the lungs, requiring little or no muscle work: expiration
Respiratory gases are exchanged in the ____ and _____ of the body tissues. alveoli and capillaries
The process od respiration is controlled by: neural (CNS control) and chemical regulators (CO2)
___ carries 99% of oxygen to tissues. hemoglobin
hypovolemia caused by shock or dehyration, reduces circulatory blood volume
When this declines, the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is decreased. Inspired oxygen concentration
A deviation from the nl sinus heart rhythm is known as: dysrhythmias
failure of the myocardium to eject sufficient volume to the systemic and pulmonary circulations can result in: heart failure
Life threatening dysrhythmias that require immediate intervention are: ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation
Impaired function of the left ventricle d/t elevated pressures and pulmonary congestion. S/s may include decreased activity tolerance, confusion, hypoxia. Clinical findings crackles, SOB left sided heart failure
Impaired functioning of the right ventricle characterized by venous congestion in systemic circulation. May be d/t COPD or long term left sided heart failure. S/s include weight gain, peripheral edema, organomegaly. Right sided heart failure
Results when the supply of blood to the myocardium from the coronary arteries is insufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the organ: myocardiam ischemia
Usually a transient imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Characterized by aching or sharp chect pain, can radiate to both arms, jaw, neck or back: angina pectoris
results from sudden decreases in coronary blood flow or an increase in myocardial oxygen demand without adequate coronary perfusion: myocardial infarction
hyperventilation state of ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate the nl venous CO2 produced by cellular metabolism
hypoventilation occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet the body's oxygen demand or to eliminate sufficient CO2
Collapse of the alveoli that prevents nl resp. exchange of oxygen and CO2 atelectasis
hypoxia inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level
clinical sign of hypoxia and manifests as breathlessness dyspnea
orthopnia abnl condition in which a person must use several pillows when lying down or must sit with arms elevated and leaning forward to breath
cough sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs
hemoptysis blood in sputum
hematemesis blood in vomit
bronchoscopy examination of bronchials
wheezing high-pitched musical sounds caused by high velocity mvmt. of air through narrowed air way
humidification process of adding water to gas
nebulization process of adding moisture or medications to inspired air by mixing particles of varying sizes with the air
A group of therapies used on combo. to mobilize pulmonary secretions: chest physiotherapy
positioning techniques that draw secretions from specific segments of lungs and bronchi into the trachea: postural drainage
method of encouraging voluntary deep breathing by providing visual feedback to clients about inspiratory volume: incentive spirometry
catheter inserted through thorax to remove fluid or air chest tube
clooection of air in the pleural space is called: pneumothorax
An accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity between the parietal and visceral pleurae, usually a result of trauma: hemothorax
ABC's of CPR are: Airway, Breathing, Circulation
This involves deep inspiration and prolonged expiration through pursed lips to prevent alveolar collapse: pursed-lip breathing
This technique requires the client to relax intercostal and accesory resp. muscles while taking deep inspirations: diaphragmatic breathing
Key Concepts (39) The primary function of the heart is to deliver deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation and to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the tissues.
Key Concepts (39) Preload, afterload, contractility, and heart rate alter cardiac output
Key Concepts (39) cardiac dysrhythmias are classified by cardiac activity and site of impulse origin
Key Concepts (39) The primary function of the lungs is to transfer O2 from the atmosphere into the alveoli and to transfer CO2 out of the body as a waste product
Key Concepts (39) ventilation is the process of providing adequate oxygenation from the alveoli to the blood
Key Concepts (39) Compliance, or the ability of the lungs to expand and contract, depends on the function of musculoskeletal and neurological systems and on other physiological factors
Key Concepts (39) The process of inspiration (active process) and expiration (passive process) is caused by changes in intrapleural and intraalveolar pressures and lung volumes
Key Concepts (39) Respiration is controlled by the CNS and by chemicals within the blood
Key Concepts (39) Decreased hempglobin levels alter the client's ability to transport O2
Key Concepts (39) Impaired chest wall mvmt. reduces the level of tissue oxygenation
Key Concepts (39) Hyperventilation is a resp. rate greater than that required to maintain nl levels of CO2
Key Concepts (39) Hypoventilation causes CO2 retention
Key Concepts (39) Hypoxia occurs if the amount of O2 delivered to the tissues is low
Key Concepts (39) The RN hx/assessment include info about the client's cough, dyspnea, fatigue, wheezing, chest pain, envir. exposures, resp. infection, cardiopulmonary risk factors, and use of meds
Key Concepts (39) diagnostic/lab procedures may be needed to complete the database for a client with decreased oxygenation
Key Concepts (39) breathing exercises improve ventilation, oxygenation, and sensations of dyspnea
Key Concepts (39) nebulization delivers small drops of water or particles of medication to the airways
Key Concepts (39) chest physiotherapy includes postural drainage, percussion, and vibration to mobilize pulmonary secretions
Key Concepts (39) coughing and suctioning techniques are used to maintain patent airway
Key Concepts (39) O2 therapy is used to improve levels of tissue oxygenation and is delivered by a nasal cannula, nasal catheter, or oxygen mask
Clients with anemia may complain of: lack of energy
The most common toxic inhalant that decreases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is: carbon monoxide
Conditions such as shock and sever dehydration resulting from ECF loss and reduced circulatory volume cause: hypovolemia
Fever increases the tissue's need for oxygen, and as a result: CO2 increases
Cyanosis, the blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by the presence of desaturated hemoglobin in capillaries is a: late sign of hypoxia
A person who starts smoking in adolescence and continues to smoke into middle age: has an increases risk for cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer
A simple & cost effective method for reducing the risk of stasis of pulmonary secretions and decreased chest wall expansion is: frequent changes of position
The most effective position for a client with cardiopulmonary disease is: 45-degrees semi-Fowlers
Created by: rschoengold