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Ch 12 Cell Cycle

Pre-AP Biology Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle

Actin A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other kinds of cells.
anaphase chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell.
aster A radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome toward the plasma membrane in an animal cell undergoing mitosis.
binary fission A method of asexual reproduction by “division in half.” In prokaryotes, binary fission does not involve mitosis; but in single-celled eukaryotes that undergo binary fission, mitosis is part of the process.
cell cycle ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, composed of interphase (G1, S, & G2) and M phase (mitosis & cytokinesis)
cell cycle control system A cyclically operating set of molecules in the eukaryotic cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
cell division The reproduction of cells.
cell plate A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
centromere The specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached.
centrosome Structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division; functions as a microtubule-organizing center. A centrosome has two centrioles.
checkpoint A control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle.
chromatin The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists in its dispersed form, as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
chromosome A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
cleavage The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane.
cleavage furrow The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
cytokinesis The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II.
Down syndrome A human genetic disease caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects.
G0 phase A nondividing state occupied by cells that have left the cell cycle.
G1 phase The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
G2 phase The second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
gamete A haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm. They unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
genome The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism’s (or virus’s) genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
interphase The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. Cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Accounts for 90% of cell cycle.
kinetochore A structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
metaphase the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the equatorial plate.
metaphase plate An imaginary plane midway between the two poles of a cell in metaphase on which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located.
mitosis nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number
mitotic (M) phase The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
mitotic spindle An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
origin of replication Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
prometaphase discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.
prophase chromatin condenses, the mitotic spindle begins to form, and the nucleolus disappears, but the nucleus remains intact.
S phase synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
sister chromatids two copies of a duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms. While joined, two sister chromatids make up one chromosome
somatic cell Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg.
telophase final stage of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun.
Created by: marsenault