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Quiz 1

Development of Plate Tectonic Theory The concept that large scale movement of continents has been around since the 16th century, Alfred Wegner (1915)
Polar Wander Paleomagnetism from ancient lavas didn’t align with the present magnetic field
What evidence supports Wegner’s hypothesis of Pangaea? Continental fit, Patterns of present day animal life, Fossil evidence, Related rocks, Ancient climates
With so much evidence in support of the continental drift hypothesis, why was it not elevated as a theory until the 1960’s Wegener lacked a mechanism. He had no way to move to continents, He incorrectly believed that only the continents were moving, • Continents are not independent plates. Plates are often made of both continental and oceanic lithosphere
The Theory of Plate Tectonics consists of four basic concepts The outer portion of the earth the lithosphere, is not a continuous shell but is broken in units called plates, The plates move, Most geologic activity is concentrated near plate boundaries, Plate interiors are relatively quiet
Divergent boundaries plates move away from one another
Convergent boundaries plates move towards one another
Transform boundaries plates slide past one another
Hot spot stationary thermal plume burning through a plate
Sea Floor Spreading New oceanic lithosphere is created where partially molten mantle material rises to fill the gap in the rift
Rift A crack like valley which allows molten rock to erupt from below
Examples of divergent plate boundaries: Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland, Sea of Cortez
Decompression melting as hot mantle material rises the drop in pressure results in melting of the rock
Subduction where one plate sinks beneath the other plate
Created by: crescenti