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68wm6 p2 Adr Dis

Adrenal Disorders

How many layers are in the adrenal cortex? Three
What is the purpose of mineralcorticoids? Involved in water and electrolyte balance, and indirectly manage blood pressure
What is the primary mineralcorticoid? Aldosterone
Mineralcorticoids cause the wasting of what? potassium and hydrogen
What is the purpose of Glucocorticoids? *Involved in glucose metabolism *Provides extra energy in times of stress *Also exhibits anti-inflammatory properties
What is the primary glucocorticoid? Cortisol
What releases the "Fight or Flight" hormones during stress? Adrenal Medulla
What are the "Fight or Flight" hormones? *Epinephrine *Norepinephrine
Name the three types of steroids released by the adrenal glands: *Mineralcorticoids *Glucocorticoids *Sex hormones
What is cushings syndrome? Rare condition in which the plasma levels of adrenocortical hormones are increased and body's protective feedback mechanism fails
List 3 objective S/Sx of Cushings syndrome: *Ecchymoses and petechiae *Skin becomes thin and fragile *Weight gain, edema and abdominal enlargement, with development of striae *Hypertension *May develop moon face and buffalo hump
What may women experience with Cushings syndrome? hirsutism and menstrual irregularities
What is Addisons disease? *(Adrenal Hypofunction) *Inadequate secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol) & mineralcorticoids (aldosterone) by adrenal glands
What is the recommended diet for Addisons Disease? Diet high in sodium and low in potassium
What is an Addisonian Crisis? an acute, emergency, life-threatening state of profound adrenal cortical insufficiency that occurs when the adrenal glands suddenly fail
List 4 S/Sx of addisonian crisis: *Sudden, severe drop in B/P (hypotension) *Anorexia, nausea and vomiting *Extremely high temperature *Diarrhea, abdominal pain *Profound weakness *Headache, restlessness or fever
Death from Addisonian Crisis results from what? hypotension and vasomotor collapse
Medical management of addisonian crisis: Corticosteroids via an intravenous solution of normal saline and glucose
What is a Pheochromocytoma? Chromaffin cell tumor, usually found in the adrenal medulla, that causes excessive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine
What is the principle manifestation of a pheochromocytoma? hypertension
Where is the incision site for an andrenolectomy? abdominal or flank incision under and following the position of the 12th rib
In the postoperative period following an adrenalectomy, the patient is closely monitored for signs and symptoms of hemorrhage, atelectasis and pneumothorax. Why are these signs and symptoms a concern? Because the adrenals are located close to the diaphragm and inferior vena cava
Created by: Shanejqb