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Foundations book

How do you find BMI? Weight in Kilograms x height in meters squared
Building blocks out of which proteins are constructed; the end products of protein digestion Amino Acids
Approximately how many amino acids are used by the human body? 20
How many amino acids are considered essential amino acids because the body doesnt make a sufficient quantity and it is necessary to obtain them from the diet? 9
A ? protein is one that contains all of the nine essential amino acids in sufficient quantity and ratio for the bodys needs. Complete proteins
? Proteins are those that are lacking in one or more of the nine essential amino acids, are of plant origin. Ex:grains,legumes,nuts,and seeds Incomplete
What are some examples of Complete proteins? meat,poultry,fish,milk,cheese,eggs, and soy
What are some examples of Incomplete Proteins? grains,legumes,nuts, and seeds
The building aspect on which the energy released from catabolism allows the cells to build more complex,usable forms of nutrients; building and repair phase of metabolism Anabolism
A psychoneurotic disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat; self-imposed starvation Anorexia Nervosa
Amount of energy used by the body at rest to maintain vital functions such as respiration,circulation, temperature,peristalsis and muscle tone. BMR Basal Metabolic Rate
An estimate used to determine if a person may be at a health risk because of excessive weight BMI body mass index
An eating disorder involving an insatiable craving for food, often resulting in continual eating followed by periods of depression, self-deprivation and or purging Bulimia Nervosa
Breakdown or destructive phase of metabolism. occurs when complex body substances are broken down to simpler ones Catabolism
Fat-soluble sterol found in animal fats and oils, organ meats, and egg yolk Cholesterol
chemical substance present in small quantities, is a lipid, found in many fruits, veg ,nuts, seeds, cereals, veg oil and other plant sources Sterols
Preforms specific functions in the body, provides no energy, is synthesized in the liver and is found in foods of animal origin. Cholesterol
The average amount of dietary cholesterol intake is an average of no more than? 300mg/day
Generic term for nondigestible chemical substances in plants. Dietary fiber
Combo of profuse perspiration, nausea, vertigo, and weakness experienced by patients who have had a subtotal gastrectomy; Dumping Syndrome
Symptoms of this are felt soon after eating, when the contents of the stomach empty to rapidly in the duodenum. Dumping Syndrome
Administration of nutrients into the gastrointestinal tract; usually refers to as tube feeding Enteral Nutrition
Carbs, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water necessary for growth, normal function, and body maintenance. these substances must be supplied by food, not synthesized by the body in the quantities required for normal health. Essential Nutrient
Polysaccharide that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells Glycogen
Process in which hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to make it more solid and stable to rancidity Hydrogenation
Unit that denotes the heat expenditure of an organism and the fuel or energy value of food Kilocalorie
Group name for organic substances of a fatty n nature, including fats, oils, sterols (cholesterol), phospholipids, waxes and related compounds Lipids
A protein and lipid molecule that facilitates transport of lipids in the blood stream Lipoprotein
The use of specific nutrition services to treat an illness, injury or condition Medical Nutrition Therapy
Difference between intake and output of nitrogen in the body. If intake is greater, a positive nitrogen balance exists and anabolism occurs. Nitrogen Balance
Difference between intake and output of nitrogen in the body. If output is greater, a negative nitrogen balance exists and catabolism occurs. when nitrogen intake equals output the body is in zero nitrogen balance. Nitrogen Balance
A chemical compound or element found in food that is necessary for good health. Nutrient
Foods providing a high quantity of one or more nutrients in a small number of calories is nutrient dense Nutrient dense foods
Abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells, mainly in the viscera and subcutaneous tissues of the body obesity
Administering nutrients by a route other than the alimentary canal, such as intravenously Parenteral Nutrition
A progressive megaloblastic, macrocytic anemia, affecting mainly older people that results from lack of intrinsic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 Pernicious Anemia
Bulk in the colon that includes undigested food, fiber, bacteria, body secretions, and cells Residue
Feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food Satiety
A diet used as a medical treatment Therapeutic Diet
The administration of a hypertonic solution into a large central vein, usually the superior vena cava, via a catheter threaded through either the subclavian or internal jugular vein Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
Administration of nutritionally balanced liquefied food or formula through a tube inserted into the stomach, duodenum, or jejunum by way of nasoenteric or a feeding ostomy Tube Feeding
Vegetarian whose diet excludes all foods of animal origin Vegan
Glucose,Fructose, Galactose are all members of what type of Simple Carbohydrate? Monosaccharides
Sucrose,Lactose, and Maltose are all members of what type of Simple Carbohydrate? Disaccharides
Starch, Glycogen and Dietary fiber are all Complex Carbohydrates also classified as? Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates and Proteins provides approximately _kcal/g? 4
Fat provides _ kcal/g? 9
Alcohol supplies _ kcal/g 7
1.Provides energy 2. build and repairs tissue 3. regulates body processes Nutrients
Recommended fiber intake is 21-? g/day 38
What is HDL? High-density lipoproteins
What is LDL? Low density lipoproteins
What is VLDL? Very low density lipoproteins
LDLs and HDLS carry cholesterol in the bloodstream which makes them of particular interest in what? Cardiovascular Disease
Cholesterol found in LDLs increases the risk of ? by contributing to plaque build up on the artery walls Atherosclerosis
HDL transports cholesterol from the bloodstream to the ? to be degraded and excreted. Liver
What carries the "bad" cholesterol? LDL (Low density lipoproteins)
What carries the "good" cholesterol? HDL (High density lipoproteins)
The goal for the American population is to maintaining stress or reducing total Serum cholesterol to less than? 200mg /dl
The major food components that raise LDL cholesterol are? Saturated fats, trans fatty acids, and dietary cholesterol
Unsaturated fatty acids that vary slightly in their chemical configuration from naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids Trans fatty acids
Produced during hydrogenation Synthetic trans fatty acids
Chemical bonds are completely filled or saturated with hydrogen Saturated fatty acid
Has one or more places on its chemical chain where hydrogen in missing Unsaturated fatty acid
Fatty acid with only one point of of unsaturation is called? monounsaturated fatty acid
Fatty acid with two or more points of unsaturation are termed ? Polyunsaturated
? provides the most concentrated source of energy of all the nutrients 9 kcal/ g Fat
Composed of glycerol a 3 carbon chain with 3 fatty acids attached to it Triglyceride
Coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils, Fat in and on meats and poultry, egg yolk, butter, cream, milk fat, cocoa butter, olive oil and olives are all part of what fatty acid class? Saturated fatty acids
Partially hydrogenated plant and fish oils, stick margarines, shortening, commercial fats used for frying and baking are all part of what fatty acid class? Trans fatty acids
Safflower oil, sunflower oil, cotton seed oil, soybean oil, corn oil, most fish oils are all examples of what type of fatty acid? Polyunsaturated
Canola oil, peanuts and peanut oil, most other nuts and avocados are examples of what type of fatty acid? Monounsaturated
HDL cholesterol in men should be less than 40 HDL cholesterol in women should be less than 50
LDL cholesterol should be less than 100 over or equal to 190 is very high Total cholesterol should be less than 200 anything greater than 240 is considered high
What are the antioxidant vitamins? Vitamins A,C,E
What vitamins are fat Soluble? Vitamins A,D,E,K
What is the best source of Vitamin D? Sunshine
Found in Egg yolks, liver, milk, carrots, aids in vision, epithelial tissue integrity,embryonic development immune function Vitamin A
A deficiency in this can cause night blindness, xerophthalmia, increased infections, follicular hyperkeratosis Vitamin A
An excess of this can cause fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, liver abnormalities, bone and skin change. Vitamin A
Can be found in fortified milk and margine, egg yolks liver, fish oils and sunlight on skin helps maintain blood calcium and phosphorus balance Vitamin D
A deficiency in this can cause Rickets, and Osteomalacia or an excess can cause calcification of soft tissue Vitamin D
Found in green leafy veg, dairy products, liver, meat, great tea aids in formation of blood clotting factors Vitamin K
A deficiency in this can cause an increased in prothrombin time in severe cases hemorrhaging Vitamin K
Found in animal products aids in new cell synthesis and maintenance of nerve cells Vitamin B12
A deficiency in this can cause pernicious anemia macrocytic megaloblastic anemia Vitamin B12
Found in citrus fruits and juices strawberries, kiwi, melons, broccoli, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, fortified beverages is an antioxidant aids in wound healing, tissue growth and maintenance proper immune function absorption of Iron Vitamin C
A deficiency in this can cause Scurvy, gingivitis, bleeding gums, easy bruising, increased infections, poor wound healing, rough skin, joint pain, muscle atrophy and fatigue. An excess can cause abdominal cramps and diarrhea Vitamin C
Found in Milk and milk products, cheese , green leafy vegetables, fish with bones. Aids in formation and maintenance of bones and teeth, blood clotting, nerve conduction and muscle contraction Calcium
A deficiency in this can cause osteoporosis and stunted growth in children. An excess can cause constipation, increased risk in males for urinary stone formation, reduced absorption of iron and zinc Calcium
Found in vegetable oils, dark green leafy veg, wheat germ, nuts. Aids in protection of cell membranes and is an antioxidant. An excess can cause an increased tendency to hemorrhage. Vitamin E
Found in milk, meat, poultry, fish, grains, food additives, found in almost all foods, an essential component of bone, energy metabolism, acid-base balance Phosphorus
a deficiency in this is rare, an excess in this can cause calcification of non skeletal tissues Phosphorous
Found in nuts, legumes, whole grains, green leafy veg, fortified cereals, aids in bone mineralization, muscle contraction and relaxation, general metabolism, blood pressure regulation. Magnesium
A deficiency in this can cause nausea, muscle weakness, confusion, tetany. An excess can cause diarrhea Magnesium
Found in Sweet potatoes, fruits, veg, fresh meat, legumes, milk. Aids in Nerve conduction, muscle contraction, including heart, fluid and acid-base balance Potassium
A deficiency in this can cause severe cardiac dysrhythmias, muscle weakness, glucose intolerance. An excess can cause Cardiac arrest Potassium
Found in Clams, liver, oysters, meat, poultry,fish, legumes, whole and enriched grains,fortified cereals. Part of hemoglobin and myoglobin is necessary for oxygen transport and use in the body; part of some enzymes, energy metabolism Iron
A deficiency in this can cause Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, fatigue, weakness, headache, apathy, pale skin, decreased immune function. In children reduced attention span decreased ability to learn. Iron
An excess of this can cause tissue damage, constipation, decreased zinc absorption. Accidental poisoning in children, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, weak pulse, dizziness, shock, disorientation Iron
Found in Iodized salt, seafood, plants grown in iodine-rich soil. Part of thyroxin which helps regulate metabolism, growth, and development. Iodine
A deficiency in this can cause a goiter; enlarged thyroid gland, weight gain,m skin and hair changes; Cretinism mental and physical retardation of fetus. An excess can cause enlarged thyroid gland Iodine
Found in organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grains, cocoa. Necessary for utilization of Iron, helps make normal red blood cells Copper
A deficiency in this can cause anemia, vascular skeletal problems. An excess can cause nausea, vomiting, liver damage Copper
An adult needs how much Protein daily? 46-50g
An adult needs how much Calories per day? 2200
An adult needs how many minerals per day? 1000mg
An adult needs how much Iron per day? 18mg
An adult needs how much Iodine daily? 150mcg
An adult needs how much Magnesium daily? 310mg
An adult needs how much Vitamins B6 daily? 1.3mg
An adult needs how much Folic Acid daily? 400mcg
An adult needs how much Vitamin C daily? 75mg
An adult needs how much Vitamin A daily? 700mcg
Recommendations to caffeine intake per day are? less than 300mg daily
A high fiber diet is used for treatment with what type of disorders? GI disorders, diverticulosis
Soft diets are used for patients going from liquid to regular diet, also for people with conditions affecting the GI tract. It is generally low in ? Fiber
There are 2 types of liquid diets what are they? Clear and full liquid
a non irritating diet consisting of liquids that are easily digested and absorbed and leave little residue in the GI tract. Clear liquid diet
Used as a transition diet after a clear liquid diet, more nutritionally complete than a clear liquid diet but lacks some nutrients still and is only temporary Full-liquid diet
Most common type of carbohydrate-modified diet serves in the treatment of ? Diabetes mellitus
Type ? Diabetes is because of obesity and sedentary lifestyles. 2
The ? of carbohydrate in the meals and snacks is more important than the source or type of carbohydrate for a person with Diabetes Total Amount
Type 1 Diabetes represents the goal of balancing carbohydrate intake with insulin administration. Type 2 Diabetes are to provide a nutritionally adequate meal plan that achieves and maintains desirable weight, normal blood cholesterol concentration and normal blood glucose levels.
Is a meal planning approach that focuses on the total amount of carbohydrates eaten at meals and snacks. Carbohydrate counting
One carbohydrate choice is equal to ? g of carbohydrate. 15g
Take 15g of carbohydrate, wait 15 mins, test blood glucose to see if response to carbohydrate is adequate. 15-15 Rule
Lactose intolerance occurs as a result of a lack of digestive enzyme? Lactase
If you were lactose intolerant you would exclude what from your diet? Milk, milk products, some soups
A fat-controlled diet is desirable for the prevention and treatment of ? Atherosclerosis & hyperlipidemia
Promotes dietary guidelines for the general population to enhance health and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. AHA American Heart Association
Developed the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet (TLC) which is the first step in treatment of patients with elevated blood lipids and existing cardiovascular disease. National Cholesterol Education Program
The inclusion of ? in the diet often help lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Monounsaturated fats
A particular type of unsaturated fat found in fatty fish, flaxseed oil, and soy products Omega 3 fatty acids
A constellation of metabolic risk factors Metabolic Syndrome
In the end stage renal disease and other kidney disease it is sometimes necessary to restrict ? intake to as little as 2000mg/day. Potassium
During end stage renal disease and other kidney diseases with low urine output ? is restricted to 500-750ml /day. Fluid intake
Are typically indicated when a patient is unable to chew or swallow, not appetite or refuses to eat, great nutritional need, comatose, moderate malabsorption, or diarrhea. Tube feeding/ Enternal nutrition
Is needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses to muscles of the body. Magnesium
Organic compounds that are essential in small quantities for normal physiologic and metabolic functioning of the body. Vitamins
Inorganic and are single elements Minerals
A condition that results from exposure to excess amounts of a substance that does not cause adverse effects in small amounts. toxicity
? can be destroyed by heat, lights, exposure to air, when food is cooked water. Vitamins
It is not possible for ? to be destroyed like vitamins because they are single elements not compounds but may sometimes get lost in cooking water. Minerals
Water soluble vitamins are? B & C
? are minerals needed in amounts greater than 100mg/ day. major minerals
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, potassium, and chloride are what type of mineral? Major Minerals
? minerals are needed in much smaller amounts. Trace minerals
Iron, zinc, Iodine, Selenium, Copper, Manganese, Fluoride, Chromium, and Molybdenum are all what type of mineral? Trace minerals
This mineral functions as an electrolyte. Sodium
Manifests itself as a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Iron deficiency Anemia
Dietary iron is found in two forms what are they? Heme and nonheme.
Heme iron is well absorbed much of the iron in animal tissues is heme iron. Nonheme iron is not well absorbed from the GI tract. Iron in plant products is nonheme.
Meat,fish, and poultry have a factor, sometimes called MFP factor that enhances ? absorption. Vitamin ? when eaten in the same meal with iron containing foods are all factors that enhance Iron Absorption. Enhance IRON absorpiton, and Vitamin C
Factors that INHIBIT iron absorption are? Bran and some fibers which contain phytates that bind iron in the GI, Polyphenols (found in coffee, tea, and red wine) Antacids, calcium in milk , soy protein
Is an electrolyte needed for normal cellular function. Potassium
The nutrient most vital to life is? Lack of this nutrient will bring detrimental effects more rapidly than any other. Water
Water makes up _ % of adult body weight and _ % of infant weight. 60% and 80%
Provides form and structure to the body tissues, acts as a solvent and is necessary for most of the bodies chemical processes to occur Water
Transports nutrients and other substances throughout the body by way of the blood, body secre4tions, and tissue fluids. Lubricates and protects moving parts of the body and also lubricates food and aids in digestion. Water
Created by: lonelystar884