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Arteries carry blood from the heart to the capillaries
Smaller arteries are called arterioles
The innermost layer of an artery is the tunica intima
The tunica intima is made of simple squamous epithelium called endothelium
The peptide endothelin stimulates contraction of this smooth muscle and is therefore a vasoconstrictor
The middle layer of an artery is the tunica media
The tunica media is made of smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue
The outermost layer of an artery is the tunica externa
The tunica externa is made of fibrous connective tissue
The outer and middle layers of large arteries are quite thick
Veins carry blood from capillaries back to the heart
The smaller veins are called venules
The inner layer of veins is smooth endothelium
The middle layer of veins is a thin layer of smooth msucle
An anastomosis is a connection, or joining, of vessels, that is, artery to artery or vein to vein
Ar arterial anastomosis helps ensure that blood will get to the capillaries of an organ to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products
Capillaries carry blood from arterioles to venules
Epidermis, cartilage, and the lens and cornea of the eye do not have capillaries
Blood flow into capillary networks is regulate by smooth muscles cells called precapillary sphincters
Some organs have another type of capillary called ________, which are larger and more permeable than are other capillaries sinusoids
Gases move by diffusion
Albumins contribues to the colloid osmotic pressure
Pulmonary veins are the only veins that contain oxygenate blood
The circle of Willis is the "circle" of arteries around the pituitary gland
Hepatic portal circulation is a subdivision of systemic circulation in which blood from the abdominal digestive organs and spleen circulates through the liver before returning to the heart
The site of exchange fetus and mother is the placenta
Umbilical veins carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
Ductus venosus goes to the inferior vena cava, to the right atrium
Foramen ovale the opening in the interatrial spetum that permits some blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atrium
Ductus arteriosus a short vessels that diverts most blood in the pulmonary artery to the aorta, to the body
Blood pressure is the force the blood that exerts against the walls of the blood vessels
Systolic pressure the blood pressure when the left ventricle is contracting
Diastolic pressure when the left ventricle is relaxed and does not exert force
Hypertension higher than normal blood pressure
Hypotension lower than normal blood pressure
Venous return The amount of blood that returns to the heart by way of the veins
Skeletal muscle pump when veins are surrounded by skeletal muscles that contract and relax during normal activities such as walking. Contractions of the leg muscles squeeze the veins to force blood toward the heart
Respiratory pump The pressure changes of inhalation and exhalation alternately expand and compress the veins, and blood is returned to the heart
If heart rate and force increase then blood pressure will increase
Seven things that help maintain blood pressure venous return, heart rate and force, peripheral resistance, elasticity of the large arteries, viscosity of the blood, loss of blood and hormones
The kidneys are involved in reninangiotensin mechanism
Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction and stimulates secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex.
The medulla contains the vasomotor center
The vasomotor center contains the vasoconstictor area and vasodilator area
The vasodilator area brings about dilation of the blood vessels, decreasing blood pressure
The vasoconstriction area brings about constriction of the blood vessels, increasing blood pressure
Created by: akikoandpoog