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Exam_2

MCB 3412 vocab

QuestionAnswer
Genetic engineering any alteration of an organism's genes for practical purposes (ex. manipulation, selective breeding)
Genomics *the study and development of genetic and physical maps, large-scale DNA sequencing, gene discovery and computer-based systems for managing and analyzing genomic data *the study of gene structure (i.e. arrangement)
Functional Genomics *using data produced by genome-sequencing projects to describe the function and interactions of genes *the large-scale study of gene expression
Comparative Genomics comparison of genomic sequences from different species
Genetics the study of genes (i.e. heredity)
Synteny genes that are in the same relative position on two different chromosomes
Computational Biology development of computational methods to solve problems in biology
Bioinformatics application of computational biology to analysis and management of real data
Database An indexed set of records retrieved using query language
Homology Method *Sequence analysis method *Extends the knowledge of protein/gene function from one sequence to its cousins (presuming they derived from a common ancestor)
Sequence Alignment Procedure for comparing 2+ sequences by searching for a series of individual characters or character patterns that are in the same order in the sequences (sequence similarity)
Transposons Sequence elements that copy themselves and jump around genome
Microsatellites *short sequences that mutate at high frequencies (hypermutable) *usually results from slipped-strand mispairing
Pseudogenes duplicated genes that cause phenotypic divergence and are usually selected against
Minisatellites *tandem repeats generally rich in G and C and are highly mutable (highly polymorphic) *affect gene regulation
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) viruses with an RNA genome that uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA
Orthologs genes found in two species that had a common ancestor
Paralogs genes found in the same species that were created through gene duplication events
"Post-Genomic" Era the move from studying the parts to understanding their function (functional genomics)using high-throughput, systematic approaches
Transformation *Introduction of DNA into bacterial and/or yeast cell *Inherited change due to acquisition of exogeneous DNA *Changes in growth properties of cells after become cancerous (eukaryotes)
Transfection *inherited changes in animal cells due to acquisition of exogenous DNA (add exogenous DNA into eukaryotic cell)
Shuttle Vector Plasmid that can replicate in two different organisms due to 2 different origins of replication
Episome Extrachromosomal replicating unit that exists autonomously or w/ a chromosome
Created by: MissCellaneous