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Pharmocology Test #1

pharm test 1

Student Learning Outcomes Safety, clinical decision making, teamwork & collaboration, professional behaviors, patient-centered care
Roles of the ADN provider of care, manager of care, member of the discipline of nursing
5 Rights of Medication Administration medication, patient, dosage, route, time
6 Additional Rights recording, remember allergies, documentation, understanding, values, refusal
Pharmacology the study of drugs and their origin, nature, properties, and effects upon living organisims
Pharmacotherapeutics the use of drugs to treat, prevent, and diagnose disease
Pharmacokinetics study of the metabolisim and action of drugs w/ particular emphasis on the time required for absorption, duration of action, distribution in the body, and method of excretion
Pharmacogenomics study of the effects of genetic differences among people and the impact that these differences have on the uptake, effectiveness, toxicity, and metabolisim of drugs
Pharmacodynamics the study of drugs and their actions on living organisims
Generic Name in small letters
Brand Name Capitalized
lisinopril Prinavil/Zestril-ACE
simvastatin Zocor-HMG-COA reductase-inhibitor, to decrease cholesterol, no grapefruit(heart rhythms/rabdomyosis-kidneys)
atenolol beta blocker-heart
metformin Hcl diabetic-Glucophage
asprin 81mg-“baby asprin”-antiplatelet, decrease blood clots
propylthiouracil PTU-for hyperthyroid
Agonist makes something happen
Antagonist stops something from happening
Narcotic Antagonist-used for/ex Opiod OD-Narcan
naloxone/Narcan blocks opiod receptors and reverses the effects of opiods, inc respiratory depression, sedation, psychomimetic effects, and hypotension (also reverses pain control)
Antithyroid agent(thioamide) propylthiouracil/PTU-lowers thyroid hormone levels by preventing the formation of thyroid hormone in the cells
Benzodiazepine antagonist-used for/ex valium, Ativan, Xanax OD-flumazenil(Romazicon)
flumazenil/Romazicon inhibits the effects of benzodiazepines at GABA receptors
Antihypoglycemic agent glucagon(no IV access) or 50% dextrose in water(IV access)
Mild Hypogycemia sympathetic NS is stimulated: sweating, tremors, tachycardia, palpitations, nervousness, hunger
Moderate Hypoglycemia impaired function of CNS
Heparin antidote protamine sulfate-lab APTT
warfarin(Coumadin)-not w/ big green leafy’s-antidote vitamin K/Mephyton(phytonadione)-lab PT/INR
Normal INR/therapeutic 1.0/2.0-3.0
Potassium(K+) 3.5-5.0
Cation exchange-Potassium sodium polystyrene sulfonate/Kayexalate-removes potassium from body by exchanging sodium ion for potassium through the large intestine
Hyperosmotic laxative-Ammonia lactulose/Cephulac-laxative action by removing water, reducing blood ammonia level-hepatic encephalopathy is reduced/prevented
Statin and Diflucan risk for rhabdomyolysis
Statin and grapefruit/grapefruit juice irregular heart rhythms and/or rhabdomyolysis
metronidazole/Flagyl and alcohol disulfiram-type reaction, violent n/v
warfarin/Coumadin and aspirin spontaneous bleeding
aspirin and clopidogrel/Plavix spontaneous bleeding
St John’s wort and fluoxetine/Prozac serotonin syndrome(confusion, restlessness, hyper-reflexia, agitation, diaphoresis, tremor, and fever) and increased sensitivity to light
Tetracyclines & Quinolones directions empty stomach, avoid calcium products, iron products, antacids
MAO Inhibitors-Nardil directions avoid alcoholic beverages, dairy, meat(dangerous rise in BP)
Coumadin directions avoid Vitamin K, green leafy veggies
OxyContin/oxycodone sustained release tablet dosed every 12 hours
oxycodone/Roxicodone rapid release tablet dosed every 4 hours
Humulin-R/Novolin R regular insulin, onset 30-60min, intermediate action
Humalog insulin lispro, onset <15min, rapid action
Novolog insulin aspart, onset 15min, rapid action
metformin/Glucophage nonsulfonylurea biquanide
methylprednisolone sodium succinate/SoluMedrol glucocorticoid
metoprolol/Lopressor beta1-selective adrenergic blocking agent
metoclopramide/Reglan antiemetic, prokinetic
metronidazole/Flagyl antiprotozoal, GI surgery
aspirin antiplatelet
diazepam/Valium anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, ETOH withdrawal, muscle relaxant
pregabalin/Lyrica fibromyalgia
gabapentin/Neurontin neuropathic pain
Lotrel: benazepril & amlodipine calcium channel blocker & ACE inhibitor
flumazenil/Romazicon benzodiazepine antagonist
vitamin K goal is to return PT/INR to normal range
protamine sulfate decrease or absence of bleeding episodes due to over heparinization
sodium polystyrene sulfonate/Kayexalate requires monitoring of electrolyte values, especially potassium
glucagon/GlucaGen decreases insulin resistance and accelerates breakdown of glycogen in the liver to release glucose
naloxone/Narcan increase in respirations, opioid agonist-antagonist
proplthiouracil/PTU decrease in heart rate, reduction in anxiety, by blocking formation of thyroid hormone
lactulose/Cephulac causes diarrhea and increased mental status
50% dextrose in water/D50W reversal of hypoglycemia by providing carbohydrates
Brand name name given to a drug by the pharmaceutical company that developed it/Capitalized
Generic name drugs sold by their chemical name or their chemical structure/lowercase
Bioavailability how a body breaks down and uses a drug. the bioavailability of generic drugs may differ from that of brand name drugs
Schedule I high abuse potential & no accepted medical use-LSD, marijuana
Schedule II high abuse potential w/ severe dependence liability-morphine, oxycodone
Schedule III less abuse potential & moderate dependence liability-hydrocodone
Schedule IV less abuse potential than schedule III & limited dependence liability-diazepam
Schedule V limited abuse potential & small amount of narcotic-codeine
Oral drugs rule ideally should be given 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal & w/ 240mL of water
Loading dose a larger amount than normal given to initially raise the serum concentration of the drug to a therapeutic level-heparin bolus, digoxin/Lanoxin
First-pass effect amount of oral medication that is absorbed from the small intestine that passes through the liver and is lost to the body
Placebo effect nurses do not give placebos but rather display a professionalism that influences the patient’s attitude about a drug by displaying a positive attitude combined w/ other comfort measures
Local anaphylactic reactions GI upset-aspirin, prednisone, antibiotics-hay fever
Systemic anaphylaxis pruritus, rash, hives, peripheral vasodilation, bronchospasm, laryngeal edema—can be life threatening
Nursing a unique and complex science as well as a nurturing and caring art
Created by: neffielewis