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Behavior and Psych

Behavioral Science and Psychiatry

QuestionAnswer
1. If asked to determine the prevalence of a disease, most disease are under ___ per 100,000 people 2. What is the effect of ↑ incidence on sensitivity? 1. 50 per 100,000 2. incidence is irrelevant in all screening tests
1. What is sensitivity 2. What is specificity 1. proportion of diseased persons who test positive 2. proportion of non-diseased persons who do not test positive
1. What does positive predictive value test? 2. What does negative predictive value test? 1. out of those with a positive test, how many are true positive 2. out of those without a positive test, how many are true negatives
What is the effect of ↑ prevalence on: 1. sensitivity 2. PPV 3. NPV 1. none 2. increases 3. decreases
1. What is reliability 2. What is validity 1. ability to measure consistently 2. measure what is was intended to measure
Synonym of: 1. Precision 2. Accuracy 1. reliability 2. validity
1. What is the bias when a sample selected does not represent the population? 2. Research study that follows a group exposed to a risk factor vs those not exposed over time. 1. selection bias 2. cohort study
Research study that identifies a group of people with the disease and compares them with a group without the disease. Case-control study
Which analysis tools would you use for the following study design? 1. Cohort 2. Case-control 3. Cross-sectional 1. relative and attributable risk 2. odds ratio 3. chi-squared
If the chance of having diabetes is 10% and the chance of being obese is 30%, what is the chance of meeting someone who is obese, has diabetes, or has both? 0.1 + 0.3 - (0.1 x 0.3) = 0.37 or 37%
1. If the confidence interval for a mean difference between 2 variables includes __ then there is no significance. 2. If the confidence interval for an odds ratio or relative risk includes __ then there is no significance. 1. zero 2. one
What is the probability of making 1. Type I error 2. Type II error 1. ρ value 2. cannot be determined by ρ alone
1. For a 95% confidence interval, the Z score can be approximated as 2. Statistical significance is determined by having a ρ value less than 1. 2 2. 0.05 or 5% (if CI is 95%)
Which type of error has occurred: 1. Test shows statistical significant when in reality there is none 2. Test does not show statistical significance when in reality there is 1. Type I (α) 2. Type II (β)
1. Most common way to increase statistical power 2. When finding that two confidence intervals overlap, what conclusion can you draw? 1. ↑ sample size 2. there is no statistical diff. between the two
1. Learning in which a natural response to a stimulus is elicited by a new stimulus 2. Learning in which a particular action is elicited because it produces reward 1. Classical conditioning 2. Operant conditioning
Which type of reinforcement 1. ↑ a stimuli → ↓ behavior 2. ↓ a stimuli → ↑ behavior 3. ↓ a stimuli → ↓ behavior 4. ↑ a stimuli → ↑ behavior 1. punishment 2. negative reinforcement 3. extinction 4. positive reinforcement
Which type of reinforcement: child learns he can stop his parents nagging by cleaning his room negative reinforcment (removal of an aversive stimuli elicits behavior)
Cognitive reasoning in disciplining children has little effect before age __ 6. only after age 6 does child have ability for abstract reasoning
1. What is the mean IQ? 2. What is the IQ criteria for mental retardation? 1. 100 2. 70
Which is mandatory reportable? 1. child abuse 2. elder abuse 3. domestic abuse 1. yes 2. yes 3. no - give counseling + information
Likely gender of perpetrator: 1. child abuse 2. elder abuse 3. domestic abuse 1. female 2. male or female 3. male
At least 2 weeks of stable mood with psychotic symptoms, plus a major depressive, manic or mixed episode. Schizoaffective disorder
In which gender does schizophrenia present early. males (late teens to early 20s vs late 20s to early 30s in women)
1. Fixed, persistent, nonbizarre belief system lasting > 1 month. 2. What is a hypomanic episode? 1. delusional disorder 2. similar to a manic episode but not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social and/or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization.
1. Mild depression lasting at least 2 years 2. Milder form of bipolar disorder lasting at least 2 years. 1. dysthymia 2. cyclothymic disorder
Bipolar I vs bipolar II 1. Bipolar I: at least 1 manic episode 2. Bipolar II: at least 1 hypomanic episode
Mneumonic for depression screening SIG E CAPS 1. Sleep disturbance 2. Interest (loss of) 3. Guilt or feeling worthless 4. Energy (loss of) 5. Concentration (loss of) 6. Appetite/weight changes 7. Psychomotor retardation 8. Suicidal ideations
Risk factors for suicide completion SAD PERSONS 1. Sex (male) 2. Age (teenager or elderly) 3. Depression 4. Previous attempt 5. Ethanol or drug use 6. Rational thinking (loss of) 7. Sickness (medical illness) 8. Organized plan 9. No spouse 10. Social support lacking
1. Persistent reexperiencing of a previous traumatic event lasting less than 1 month. 2. Unconscious production of medical symptoms without a conscious motivation 1. Acute stress disorder 2. somatoform disorder
1. Intentionally producing medical symptoms for an unconscious gain. 2. Intentionally producing medical symptoms for a known gain. 1. fictitious disorder 2. malingering
1. Chronic fictitious disorder 2. Creating a fictitious disorder in another 1. Munchausen's syndrome 2. Munchausen's syndrome by proxy
1. Sudden loss of sensory or motor function with no identifiable cause, often following acute stressor 2. Multiple organ system complains over the years with no identifiable cause 1. conversion disorder 2. somatization disorder
1. Disregard for and violation of rights of others 2. unstable mood and interpersonal relationships, self-mutilation 3. hypersensitive to rejection, socially inhibited but desired relationships with others 1. Antisocial personality disorder 2. Borderline personality disorder 3. Avoidant personality disorder
1. Exessive emotionality, sexually provocative attention seeking. 2. Voluntary social withdrawal, limited social expression. 3. Eccentric appearance, odd beliefs or magical thinking. 1. Histrionic personality disorder 2. Schizoid personality disorder 3. Schizotypal personality disorder
1. Grandiosity, sense of entitlement; lacks empathy and require excessive admiration 2. Preoccupation with order, perfectionism; behavior consistent with one's own beliefs 3. Submissive and clinging, excessive need to be taken care of 1. Narcissistic personality disorder 2. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 3. Dependent personality disorder
What are the 6 stages in overcoming substance addiction? 1. precontemplation 2. contemplation 3. preparation 4. action 5. maintenance 6. relapse
Which substance of abuse causes: 1. pinpoint pupils 2. vertical nystagmus 3. pupillary dilation 4. seizures 5. arrhythmia 1. opioids 2. PCP 3. amphetamines, cocaine, hallucinogens 4. benzo/alcohol withdrawal 5. cocaine
CAGE questionnaire for alcoholism 1. tried to Cut down on alcohol 2. Annoyed by criticism from others concerning your drinking 3. Guilty about drinking behavior 4. drink as an Eye-opener in the morning to relieve anxiety/shakes
Depressed mood characterized by hypersomnia, overeating, mood reactivity. Atypical depression
Depressed mood characterized by insomnia, anhedonia, loss of energy and concentration. Major depressive episode (must last 2 weeks and less that 12 months)
1. Which neurotransmitter initiates sleep 2. Which neurotransmitter is incresed in REM? 3. In which stage of sleep do night terrors and sleep walking occur? 1. serotonin 2. Acetylcholine 3. stage 4
1. Treatment for night terrors and sleepwalking? 2. How do these treatment work? 1. benzodiazepines 2. they decrease stage 4 sleep when these phenomena are thought to occur
What EEG waveforms are found in the sleep stages: 1. Stage 1 2. Stage 2 3. Stage 3-4 4. REM 5. Awake 1. Theta 2. Sleep spindles, K complexes 3. Delta 4. Beta 5. Beta and Alpha
Neurotransmitter changes with disease: 1. Anxiety 2. Depression 3. Alzheimer's 4. Huntington's 5. Schizophrenia 6. Parkinson's disease 1. ↑NE, ↓GABA, ↓5HT 2. ↓NE, ↓5HT, ↓dopamine 3. ↓ACh 4. ↓GABA, ↓ACh 5. ↑dopamine 6. ↓dopamine, ↑ACh
1. Which has an abnormal EEG, delirium or dementia? 2. What is double depression 1. delirium 2. a major depressive episode on top of a already existing dysthymia
What is required for a diagnosis of Schizophrenia? Requires 2 or more of the following with >6 month decline in functioning: 1. Bizarre Delusions 2. Hallucination 3. Disorganized speech 4. Disorganized or catatonic behavior 5. Negative symptoms: flat affect, social withdrawal
What does the APGAR score consist of? 1. Appearance 2. Pulse 3. Grimace 4. Activity 5. Respiration
What do infants possess a positive babinski sign? UMNs in the infant are still in the process of undergoing myelination
What are primary, secondary and tertiary disease prevention? PDR 1. Prevent 2. Detect 3. Reduce disability
Leading causes of death: 1. infants 2. Age 1-14 1. congenital anomaly, sudden infant death, respiratory distress 2. injury, cancer, congenital anomaly
Leading causes of death: 1. age 15-24 2. age 25-64 3. age 65+ 1. injuries, homicide, suicide 2. cancer, heart disease, injuries 3. heart disease, cancer, stroke
How long before infant deprivation becomes irreversible? > 6 months
Study in which a group of people are assessed to determine frequency of disease (and related risk factors) at a particular point in time. Cross-sectional study
20 out of 90 patient on a beta-blocker developed an arrhythmia following MI. 30 out of 70 patients not on a beta-blocker did not. What is the odds ratio? (20x40)/(70x30)
In a positively skewed distribution, what is the relation of the mean, median and mode mean > median > mode (opposite for negatively distributed)
Bias occurring when the effects of 1 factor distort the effects of the other confounding bias
How do you determine correlation coefficient from the r value? r squared
How do you determine the power of a study? 1 - β (1 - the probability of concluding that there is no difference when one actually exists)
What is the Z score when the Confidence Interval is: 1. 95% 2. 99% 1. 1.96 2. 2.58
Researcher belief in the efficacy of the treatment changes the outcome of the treatment Pygmalian effect
Early detection is confused with increased survival rate Lead-time bias
What is a chi squared test used for? difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcomes
What is a t test used for differences between the means of 2 groups
Created by: amichael87