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NURSING123

A&P

QuestionAnswer
WHAT IS THE CORRECT ORDER OF COMPLEXITY, GOING FROM LEAST TO MOST COMPLEX? ATOM, MOLECULE, ORGANELLE, CELL, TISSUE, ORGAN
ORGANELLES ARE COMPARTMENTS WITHIN CELLS
TISSUES ARE A GROUP OF CELLS THAT SERVE A COMMON FUNCTION
TISSUES ARE GROUPED TOGETHER IN FUNCTIONAL UNITS CALLED ORGANS
THE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES THAT PLAY THE GREATEST ROLE IN CELLULAR CHEMICAL REACTIONS ARE ELECTRONS
THE MASS WITHIN IN AN ATOM COMES FROM PROTONS AND NUTRONS
AN ATOM WHOSE ATOMIC NUMBER IS 10 HAS HOW MANY ELECTRONS IN ITS OUTERMOST ENERGY LEVEL 8
ISOTOPES ARE ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT THAT DIFFER IN THEIR NUMBER OF NUTRONS
WHAT IS FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS OF AN ATOM? PROTONS AND NUTRONS
AN ELEMENT WITH 22 PROTONS, 22 NEUTRONS, AND 22 ELECTRONS WOULD HAVE AN ATOMIC NUMBER OF 22
WHAT RESULTS FROM THE MAKING OF A BOND? ATOMS BECOME MORE STABLE
FOR AN ATOM TO BE CONSIDERED AN ION PROTONS CAN OUT NUMBER ELECTRONS
AN ATOM BECOMES AN ION WHEN IT GAINS OR LOSES ELECTRONS
HYDROGEN BONDS ARE VERY IMPORTANT IN THE FUNCTIONAL SHAPE OF PROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS
THE SYMBOL 3CO2 REPRESENTS 3 MOLECULES OF CARBON DIOXIDE
IN A BOTTLE OF WATER, HYDROGEN BONDING OCCURS BETWEEN THE HYDROGEN OF 1 ATOM AND AN OXYGEN ATOM IN A DIFFERENT MOLECULE
WHAT IS NOT A COMPOUND? SODIUM
ATOMS FORMS BONDS TO FILL THEIR OUTER SHELLS WITH ELECTRONS
WATER IS A POLAR MOLECULE BECAUSE OXYGEN IS MORE ELECTRONEGATIVE THAN HYDROGEN
H2S IS AN EXAMPLE OF A MOLECULAR FORMULA
POTASSIUM HAS ONE ELECTRON IN ITS FOURTH SHELL, AND CHLORIDE HAS SEVEN ELECTRONS IN ITS THIRD SHELL. WHAT WOULD BE TRUE? POTASSIUM WILL GIVE AN ELECTRON TO CHLORIDE TO FORM AN IONIC BOND
YOU MIX SUGAR IN WATER AND STIR UNTIL COMPLETELY DISSOLVED. IN THIS SYSTEM, THE WATER IS THE ---,SUGAR IS THE----AND THE END RESULT IS A---- SOLVENT, SOLUTE, SOLUTION
EACH ELEMENT HAS A UNIQUE---, WHICH REFERS TO THE NUMBER OF PROTONS PRESENT IN ITS ATOMS ATOMIC NUMBER
A MOLECULE IS A BONDING TOGETHER OF TWO OR MORE ATOMS
IF LITHIUM HAS AN ATOMIC NUMBER OF 3, AND AN ATOMIC MASS OF 7, IT HAS----NEUTRONS IN ITS NUCLEUS 4
SUBSTANCES THAT ARE NONPOLAR AND REPELLED BY WATER ARE HYDROPHOBIC
A HYDROGEN BOND IS FORMED WHEN AN ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOM OF A MOLECULE WEAKLY INTERACTS WITH A HYDROGEN ATOM THAT IS ALREADY PARTICIPATING IN A POLAR COVALENT BOND
AN IONIC BOND IS ONE IN WHICH TWO CHARGED ATOMS HAVE A MUTUAL ATTRACTION DUE TO ELECTRON TRANSFER OR DONATION
A COVALENT IS ONE IN WHICH ELECTRONS ARE SHARED
LIPIDS---- INCLUDE TRIGLYCERIDES THAT SERVE AS ENERGY SOURCES
DNA--- CONTAINS PROTEIN BUILDING INSTRUCTIONS
A NONPOLAR COVALENT BOND IMPLIES THAT-- THERE IS NO DIFFERENCE IN CHARGE AT THE ENDS(THE TWO OLES) OF THE BOND
A SOLUTION WITH A PH OF 11 IS--- TIMES AS BASIC AS ONE WITH A PH OF 8 1,000
CARBON IS PART OF SO MANY DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES BECAUSE A CARBON ATOM GENERALLY FOORMS FOUR COVALENT BONDS WITH A VARIETY OF ATOMS
A SOLUTION WITH A PH OF 4 HAS MORE H IONS THAN OH IONS
HYDROLYSIS COULD BE CORRECTLY DESCRIBED AS THE BREAKING OF A LONG-CHAIN COMPOUND INTO ITS SUBUNITS BY ADDING WATER MOLECULES TO ITS STRUCTURE BETWEEN THE SUBUNITS
GENETIC INSTRUCTIONS ARE ENCODED IN THE BASE SEQUENCE OF ----MOLECULES OF----FUNCTION IN PROCESSES USING GENETIC INSTRUCTIONS TO CONSTRUCT PROTEINS DNA; RNA
MEMBRANES CONSISTOF CHOLESTEROL, PROTEINS, GLYCOLIPIDS AND GLYCOPROTEINS,A PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
THE NUCLEOLUS IS THE SITE WHERE THE PROTEIN AND RNA SUBUNITS OF RIBOSOMES ARE ASSEMBLED
THE----IS FREE OF RIBOSOMES AND CURVES THROUGH THE CYTOPLASM LIKE CONNECTING PIPES, THE MAIN SITE OF LIPID SYNTHESIS SMOOTH ER
MITOCHONDRIA CONVERT ENERGY STORED IN--- TO FORMS THAT THE CELL CAN USE PRINCIPALLY ATP CARBON COMPOUNDS
---- ARE SACS OF ENZYMES. THEY DIGEST OR BREAK DOWN WORN OUT ORGANELLES SO THAT THE MATERIAL CAN BE RECYCLED AND REUSED BY THE CELL LYSOSOMES
TWO CLASSES OF CYTOSKELETAL ELEMENTS UNDERLIE NEARLY ALL MOVEMENTS OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS; THEY ARE MICROTUBULES AND MICROFILAMENTS
WHITE BLOOD CELLS USE---- TO DEVOUR DISEASE AGENTS INVADING YOUR BODY PHAGOCYTOSIS
IN A LIPID BILAYER, TAILS POINT INWARD AND FORM A--- REGION THAT EXCLUDES WATER. HYDROPHOBIC
IS BULK FLOW A FORM OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT? no
IS EXOCYTOSIS A FORM OF PASSIVE TRANSPORT? NO
O2, CO2, H2O AND OTHER SMALL ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL MOLECULES MOVE ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE BY PASSIVE TRANSPORT
IONS SUCH AS H, NA, K, AND Ca MOVE ACROSS CELL MEMBRANES AGAINST IT CONCENTRATION GRADIENT BY ACTIVE TRANSPORT
AN IMPORTANT PRINCIPLE OF THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS IS THAT MATTER TENDS TO BECOME INCREASINGLY MORE DISORGANIZED
ESSENTIALLY THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS STATES ENERGY CANNOT BE CREATED OR DESTROYED
AN ENZYME IS BEST DESCRIBED AS PROTEIN AND CATALYST
WHICH IS NOT TRUE OF ENZYME BEHAVIOR/ AN INDIVIDUAL ENZYME CAN CATALYZE A WIDE VARIETY OF DIFFERENT REACTIONS
WHEN NAD COMBINES WITH HYDROGEN, THE NAD IS--- REDUCED
A SUBSTANCE THAT GAINS ELECTRONS IS REDUCED
AS TO MAJOR FUNCTION, NAD, FAD, AND NADP ARE CLASSIFIED AS---- COFACTORS THAT FUNCTION AS COENZYMES
WHEN A PHOSPHATE BOND IS LINKED TO ADP IT THEN MAKES ATP, THIS BOND RELEASES A LARGE AMOUNT OF USABLE ENERGY WHEN THE PHOSPHATE GROUP IS SPLIT OFF DURING HYDROLYSIS
AN ALLOSTERIC ENZYME--- HAS AN ACTIVE SITE WHERE SUBSTRATE MOLECULES BIND AND ANOTHER SITE BINDS WITH INTERMEDIATE OR END- PRODUCT MOLECULES
GLYCOLYSIS WOULD QUICKLY HALT IF THE PROCESS RAN OUT OF ----, WHICH SERVES AS THE HYDROGEN AND ELECTRON ACCEPTOR NAD
THE ULTIMATE ELECTRON ACCEPTOR IN AEROBIC RESPIRATION IS OXYGEN
WHEN GLUCOSE IS USED AS AN ENERGY SOURCE, THE LARGEST AMOUNT OF ATP IS GENERATED BY THE ---PORTION OF THE ENTIRE RESPIRATORY PROCESS ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE PROCESS BY WHICH REDUCED NADH TRANSFERS ELECTRONS ALONG A CHAIN OF ACCEPTORS TO OXYGEN SO AS TO FORM WATER AND IN WHICH THE ENERGY RELEASED ALONG THE WAY IS USED TO GENERATE ATP THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
PYRUVIC ACID CAN BE REGARDED AS THE END PRODUCT OF GLYCOLYSIS
ATP PRODUCTION BY CHEMIOSMOSIS INVOLVES H CONCENTRATION AND ELECTRIC GRADIENTS ACROSS A MEMBRANE, ATP SYNTHESIS, FORMATION OF ATP IN THE INNER MITOCHONDRIAL COMPARTMENT
DURING THE FERMENTATION PATHWAYS, A NET YEILD OF TWO ATP IS PRODUCED FROM----,THE NAD NECESSARY FOR--- IS REGENERATED DURING THE FERMENTATION REACTIONS GLYCOLYSIS; Glycolysis
THE REPLICATION OF DNA OCCURS -- BETWEEN THE GROWTH PHASE OF INTERPHASE
DIPLOID REFERS TO HAVING TWO CHROMOSOMES OF EACH TYPE IN SOMATIC CELLS
SOMATIC CELLS ARE---CELLS, GERM CELLS ARE ----CELLS BODY; MEIOTIC
IF A PARENT CELL HAS SIXTEEN CHROMOSOMES AND UNDERGOES MITOSIS, THE RESULTING CELLS WILL HAVE ----CHROMOSOMES SIXTEEN
CORRECT ORDER OF THE STAGES OF MITOSIS PROPHASE, METAPHASE,ANAPHASE, TELOPHASE
THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE BREAKS COMPLETELY INTO NUMEROUS TINE, FLATTENED VESICLES. NOW THE CHROMOSOMES ARE FREE TO INTERACT WITH MICROTUBULES THAT ARE EXTENDING TOWARD THEM, FFROM THE POLES OF THE FORMING SPINDLE. THESE SENTENCES DESCRIBE THE---- OF MITOSIS PROPHASE
DURING---,SISTERS CHROMATIDS OF EACH CHROMOSOME ARE SEPARATED FROM EACH OTHER AND THOSE FORMER PARTNERS, NOW CHROMOSOMES MOVE TO OPPOSITE POLES. ANAPHASE
IN THE PROCESS OF CYTOKINESIS CLEAVAGE FURROWS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH---CELL DIVISION AND CELL PLATE FORMATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH ----CELL DIVISION ANIMAL; PLANT
EACH DNA STRAND HAS A BACKBONE THAT CONSISTS OF ALTERNATING SUGAR AND PHOSPHATE MOLECULES
IN DNA COMPLEMENTARY BASE-PAIRING OCCURS BETWEEN ADENINE AND THYMINE
ADENINE AND GUANINE ARE DOUBLE-RINGED PURINES
TRANSCRIPTION OCCURS DURING THE SYNTHESIS OF ANY TYPE OF RNA BY USE OF A DNA TEMPLATE
---CARRY AMINO ACIDS TO RIBOSOMES WHERE AMINO ACIDS ARE LINKED INTO PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF A POLYPEPTIDE tRNA
TRANSFER RNA DIFFERS FROM OTHER TYPES OF RNA BECAUSE IT CARRIES AN AMINO ACID AT ONE END
---AND---ARE FOUND IN RNA BUT NOT IN DNA URACIL;RIBOSE
---bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms covalent
A CHEMICAL BOND IN WHICH ELECTRONS ARE GAINED OR LOST IS A---BOND IONIC
AN ELECTRON IS A NEGATIVELY CHARGED SUBATOMIC PARTICLE
A SUBATOMIC PARTICLE POSSESSING NO ELECTRICAL CHARGE IS CALLED NEUTRON
ALL ISOTOPES OF A PARTICULAR ELEMENT POSSESS SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS BUT A DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
AN ATOM OR A GROUP OF ATOMS POSSESSING A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ELECTRICAL CHARGE IS CALLED A ION
CARBON HAS AN ATOMIC NUMBER OF 6 BUT HAS 8 NEUTRONS .HOW MANY ELECTRONS ARE PRESENT IN EACH ATOM? 6
CHLORINE MUST GAIN ONE ELECTRON TO FILL ITS OUTER ENERGY LEVEL COMPLETELY. POTASSIUM MUST LOSE ONE ELECTRON IN ORDER TO POSSESS A COMPLETELY FILLED ENERGY LEVEL. WHAT TYPE OF BOND WOULD YOU EXPECT TO FIND IN POTASSIUM CHLORIDE? IONIC
ATOMIC NUMBER IS DETERMINED BY THE NUMBER OF---IN EACH ATOM PROTONS ONLY
ATOMS OF THE ELEMENT CARBON HAVE FOUR ELECTRONS IN THE OUTERMOST SHELL. WHAT IS THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SINGLE COVALENT BONDS THAT CAN FORM BETWEEN ONE ATOM OF CARBON AND OTHER ATOMS? 4
WHAT DETERMINES THE PH OF A SOLUTION? THE HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION
WHAT QUALITIES OF WATER IS LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PHENOMENON KNOWN AS CAPILLARY ACTION? WATER IS STRONGLY COHESIVE
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IS THE CHEMISTRY OF CARBON COMPOUNDS
A MOLECULE WITH THE FORMULA C5H10O5 IS LIPID-CHNOP
WHICH IS A CONDENSATION(DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS)REACTION? the linking together of two glucose molecules
each amino acid has a different r group
A PENTOSE SUGAR ,A PHOSPHATE GROUP AND A NITROGEN CONTAINING BASE ARE FOUND IN A NUCLEOTIDE
IN A THEORETICAL MONOSACCHARIDE THERE ARE 18 ATOMS OF HYDROGEN. HOW MANY ATOMS OF OXYGEN ARE PRESENT? 9
AMINO ACIDS ARE BUILDING BLOCKS OR MONOMERS FOR PROTEINS
AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION OCCURS IN THE MITOCHONDRIA
DETOXIFICATION OF CERTAIN POTENTIALLY POISONOUS MOLECULES OCCRUS IN THE PEROXISOMES
THE SITE OF PROTEIN FORMATION IN THE CELL IS THE RIBOSOMES
THIS ORGANELLE IS THE COMPOUND AND CONTROL CENTER OF THE CELL NUCLEUS
PROTEINS THAT ARE SECRETED OUTSIDE THE CELL IN THE PROCESS OF EXOCYTOSIS ARE RELEASED BY SECRETORY VESICLES
CILIA AND FLAGELLA ARE SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES USED FOR LOCOMOTION
MITOCHONDRIA ARE ORGANELLES THAT PRODUCE ATP FROM THE CHEMICAL ENERGY OF FOOD
WHY ARE RIBOSOMES ATTACHED TO THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM(ER)? NEWLY SYNTHESIZED POLYPEPTIDES CAN MOVE DIRECTLY THROUGH THE ER MEMBRANE
DIFFUSION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH A SUBSTANCE MOVES FROM AN AREA OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION
A DIFFUSION EQUILIBRIUM IS REACHED WHEN THERE IS NO NET MOVEMENT BETWEEN TWO AREAS
OSMOSIS IS A SPECIAL CASE OF DIFFUSION THAT INVOLVES THE MOVEMENT OF WATER ACROSS A MEMBRANE
THE NET MOVEMENT OF WATER ACROSS A SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE IS ALWAYS FROM THE HYPOTONIC TO THE HYPERTONIC ONE
THE DIRECTION OF OSMOSIS IS DETERMINED BY THE CONCENTRATION OF DISSOLVED SOLUTES ON BOTH SIDES OF THE MEMBRANE
---IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE UNDIGESTED CONTENTS OF FOOD VACUOLES ARE REMOVED FROM THE CELL EXOCYTOSIS
WHEN A NEURON IS STIMULATED AND Na IONS MOVE THROUGH AN OPEN Na CHANNEL THE PROCESS IS FACILITATED DIFFUSION
ENZYMES ARE IMPORTANT AS CATALYSTS FOR CHEMICAL REACTIONS
WHAT IS ACTIVATION ENERGY? ENERGY IT REQUIRED TO START A CHEMICAL REACTION
ENZYMES LOWER ACTIVATION ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
THE REACTANTS IN AN ENZYME CATALYZED REACTION ARE CALLED SUBSTRATES
THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE SYNTHESIS OF ENZYMES COMES FROM DNA
WITH FEW EXCEPTION, ALL ENZYMES THAT HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED ARE PROTEINS
LUNGS,HEART, OR BRAIN ARE EXAMPLES OF ORGANS
CIRCULATORY, RESPIRATORY, OR DIGESTIVE ARE EXAMPLES OF SYSTEMS
the subatomic particles that play the greatest role in cellular chemical reactions are ELECTRONS
AN ATOM WHOSE ATOMIC NUMBER IS 10 HAS HOW MANY ELECTRONS IN ITS OUTERMOST ENERGY LEVEL 8
ISOTOPES ARE ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT THAT DIFFER IN THEIR NUMBER OF NEUTRONS
AN ATOM BECOMES AN ION WHEN IT GAINS OR LOSES ELECTRONS
IS NITROGEN A COMPOUND? NO
SUBSTANCES THAT ARE NONPOLAR AND REPELLED BY WATER ARE HYDROPHOBIC
A HYDROGEN BOND IS FORMED WHEN AN ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOM OF A MOLECULE WEAKLY INTERACTS WITH A HYDROGEN ATOM THAT IS ALREADY PARTICIPATING IN A POLAR COVALENT BOND
A COVALENT BOND IS ONE WHICH ELECTRONS ARE SHARED
ADDING A BASE TENDS TO------OF A SOLUTION INCREASE THE OH CONCENTRATION AND RAISES THE PH
AN ACIDIC SOLUTION CAN BE NEUTRALIZED BY ADDING A BASE
A SOLUTION HAS A PH OF 4. THIS PH IS ACIDIC
LIPIDS--- INCLUDE TRIGLYCERIDES THAT SERVE AS ENERGY SOURCES
ARE TRIGLYCERIDES CARBOHYDRATES? NO
THE MONOMER OF A NUCLEIC ACID IS NUCLEOTIDE
CELL MEMBRANES OF ANIMALS CONSIST OF A LIPID BILAYER, AND PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND PROTEINS
THE NUCLEOLUS IS THE SITE WHERE THE PROTEIN AND RNA SUBUNITS OF RIBOSOMES ARE ASSEMBLED
THE---- IS FREE OF RIBOSOMES AND CURVES THROUGH THE CYTOPLASM LIKE CONNECTING PIPES;THE MAIN SITE OF LIPID SYNTHESIS SMOOTH ER
MITOCHONDRIA CONVERT ENERGY STORED IN ----TO FORMS THAT THE CELL CAN USE, PRINCIPALLY ATP GLUCOSE
----ARE SACS OF ENZYMES THAT PRODUCE POTENTIALLY HARMFUL HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PEROXISOMES
WHITE BLOOD CELLS USE --- TO DEVOUR DISEASE AGENTS INVADING YOUR BODY PHAGOCYTOSIS
A FORM OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT IS SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
---IS THE MOVEMENT OF WATER THRU A MEMBRANE FROM A HIGH WATER CONCENTRATION TO A LESS WATER CONCENTRATION OSMOSIS
A CELL IS IMMERSED IN A HYPERTONIC SOLUTIN, THE NET MOVEMENT OF WATER WILL BE OUT OF THE CELL
THE REPLICATION OF DNA OCCURS BETWEEN THE GROWTH PHASE OF INTERPHASE
TRANSCRIPTION OCCURS DURING THE SYNTHESIS OF ANY TPYE OF RNA BY USE OF A DNA TEMPLATE
AEROBIC RESPIRATION TAKES PLACE IN WHICH CELL ORGANELLE MITOCHONDRIA
Created by: camillewhite