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Chapter 40 Potter

Fluids, electrolytes, and acid-base balances

___% of the average adult's weight is fluid 60%
Intracellular fluids (ICF) all fluid w/in body cells
What % of body weight is ICF? 40%
Extracellular fluid (ECF) fluid outside of a cell; divided into 3 parts, Interstitial fluid, intravascular fluid, and transcellular fluids
What % of ECF makes up body weight? 20%
What is interstitial fluid? contains lymph, fluid between cells and outside blood vessels
What is Intravascular fluid? blood plasma
Electrolytes minerals or salts; when melted or dissolved in water it separates into ions and is able to carry an electrical current
Cation + charged electrolytes EX: Na+ K+ Ca+
Anion - charged electrolytes EX: Cl- HCO3- SO4-
Solute dissolvable in water
Solvent dissolvable in plasma
Osmosis movement of a pure solvent, through a semipermeable membrane, from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of greater solute concentration to try to equalize concentrations on both sides of a membrane
Osmotic pressure is: the drawing power for water & depends on the number of molecules in solution
A solution with the same osmolarity as blood plasma is called: isotonic
Movement of a solute in a solution across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is: diffusion
Filtration water and diffusable substances move together in response to fluid pressure, moving from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
hydrostatic pressure mvmt of water from interstitial space into the intravascular space by filtration
Increased hydrostatic pressure causes what? edema, as with CHF
Active transport movement of materials across cell membranes requiring metabolic activity
homeostasis physiological balance
Osmoreceptors continually monitor the serum osmotic pressure, when osmolality increases, hypothalamus is stimulated
ADH Antidiuretic hormone; stored in pituitary gland; works directly on kidney tubules and collecting ducts making them more permeable which returns water to systemic circulation
Aldosterone released by adrenal cortex in response to increased K+ levels; it increases the reabsorption of Na+ and secretion of K+
Insensible water loss continuous and not percieved by person
sensible water loss through excess perspiration
The lungs expire____ml of water a day 400ml
What are the major cations? Na+ K+ Ca+ Ions
What are the major anions? chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate
__% of sodium is in the ECF? Function of Na+? 90%, maintain water balance
__% of K+ in ECF. What's it's function? 2%; regulates metabolic activity
1% of Ca+ is in blood, 99% in bone; what is the function? blood clotting, bone/teeth formation
Magnesium is essential for: enzyme activities, neurochemical activities, cardiac and skeletal excitability
__% of magnesium in ECF. Nl plasma concentration is: 1%; 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
Bicarbonate, a chemical base buffer, is regulated by: the kidneys
Buffer a substance or group of substances that can absorb or release H+ to correct an acid-base balance
What is the largest chemical buffer in ECF? carbonic acid and bicarbonate buffer system; reacts to change in pH of ECF within seconds
Biological regulation occurs when H= ions are absorbed and released by cells, occurs only after chemiocal buffering and takes 2-4 hrs
Fluid volume deficit (FVD) water & electrolytes lost in equal or isotonic proportions
Fluid volume excess (FVE) water and sodium retained in isotonic proportions
Hyperosmolar imbalance = dehydration
hypoosmolar imbalance= water excess
TPN or total parenteral nutrition nutritionally adequate hypertonic solution of glucose, electrolytes, and other nutrients given through an indwelling or central IV
IV fluid and electrolyte therapy crystalloids
colloids blood and blood component
Vascular access devices include: catheters, cannulas, infusion ports,
the breakdown of RBC's is called: hemolysis
Autologous transfusion collection of clients own blood (pre-op)
One of the most common electrolyte imbalances is: hypokalemia
The client most at risk for FVD's is: an infant
One reason older adults experience fluid and electrolyte imbalance and acid-base imbalances is they: have a decreased thirst sensation
Output recorded on an I & O record includes: urine, diarrhea, vomitus, gastric suction, and drainage from wounds and tubes
Health promotion activities in the area of fluid and electrolyte imbalances focuses primarily on: client teaching
TPN is delivered by: indwelling or central IV catheter
As a safety alert the RN is aware the following med is never given directly through IV: Potassium chloride, it will burn the vein
Indications of IV fluid infiltration include: pallor and coolness
CDC recommends replacing peripheral venous catheters and rotating sites should occur at least every: 72-96 hours
Created by: rschoengold