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CMB-Chapter 14

CMB - Chapter 14 - Basic Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the study of the medications including their composition, indications, adverse effects, and how they act in the body
Pharmacodynamics is the study of what drugs do to the body.
Pharmacokinetics is the study of what the body does to drugs.
ADME absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
When a drug stimulates or increases the effect, the drug is called an agonist
When a drug inhibits or decreases the effect, the drug is called an antagonist
The therapeutic window concept is the idea that medications have an optimal range where they work in
The therapeutic index is a measure of how safe medications are
Therapeutic Index (TI) values are deternmined by taking lethal dose of a given drug divided by the effective dose
Absorption is the method the body uses to take medication into the bloodstream
Bioavailability is a measure of how much of the drug actually gets into the blood to be distributed in the body
Disintegration is the process of breaking down into smaller parts as demonstrated by crushing a tablet
Dissolution is the ability of solid to dissolve to a liquid form
? tend to work the fastest, followed by ?, and finally ? & ? solutions, suspensions, tablets & capsules
CD controlled dose
CR controlled release
ER extended release
IR immediate release
LA long acting
SR sustanied release
XL extended release
XR extended release
Distribution is how the body moves the medication from the bloodstream to tissues or organs to exert its effect.
Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance.
fat soluble medications tend to be eliminated by the liver
water soluble molecules tend to be eliminated by the kidneys
The volume of distribution (Vd) gives an idea of where medications go in the body
pH stands for "power of hydrogen"
Weak acids and weak bases are considered "salts" of substances
Generic names ending in "ine" are bases
Metabolism is the body's attempt to make medication more polar so the medication can be easily eliminated.
Excretion is how the body eliminates a medication
In ?, a constant amount of drug is eliminated over time zero order kinetics
almost all medications are eliminated by which type of kinetics first order kinetics
The half-life of a drug is the amount of time it takes for half of the original medication to be eliminated
When two medications work together, the medications are synergistic
When two medications inhibit each other, the medications are antagonistic
drug-drug interactions two drugs are mixed together to create another effect
drug-food interactions drugs are affected by consuming certain food or drink such as grapefruit juice
drug-disease interactions drug can be harmful due to a medical condition
Pharmacokinetic interactions occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of the other drug.
Pharmacodynamic interactions occur when one drug adds to or neutralizes the other drug's effect without affecting the pharmacokinetics of the other drug.
? neutralizes warfarin and is the antidote for warfarin overdose Vitamin K
Toxicology is the study of poisons and how they affect the body
antidote for APAP, Tylenol overdose is Acetylcysteine (Acetadote, Mucomyst)
antidote for Alcohol (ethanol) or fomepizole Methanol or ethylene glycol
antidote for Anticholinergics is Physostigmine (Antilirium)
antidote for Benzodiazepines is Flumazenil
beta-blocker antidote Glucagon
Black widow spider bite antidote Antivenin (Latrodectus mactans)
Calcium channel blockers antidote Ca
Carbon monoxide antidote oxygen
Cyanide antidote Amyl nitrate
Digoxin antidote Digoxin Immune Fab
Epinephrine antidote Phentolamine
Heparin or enoxaparin antidote Protamine
Narcotics/Opiates antidote Naloxone
Nerve gas poisoning antidote Pralidoxime (2-PAM, Protopam)
Tricyclic antidepressant antidote Sodium bicarbonate
Theophylline or caffeine antidote Esmolol
The ? regulates (or controls) muscles that we have voluntary control over, such as biceps and triceps somatic nervous system (SoNS)
The ANS is composed of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS)
The SNS is the "fight or flight" system; heart, lungs
The PSNS is the "rest and digest" system; stomach,
The SNS is also referred to as the ? because the SNS nerves branch out from this part of the spinal cord thoracolumbar system
When alpha receptors are stimulated, the result is the excitation/stimulation/constriction of the organ or tissue
When beta receptors are stimulated, the result is the relaxation/inhibition/dilation of the organ or tissue
The PSNS is also referred to as the ? because the PSNS nerves branch out at this part of the spinal cord craniosacral system
? receptors are found primarily in the arteries Alpha
? receptors are found primarily in the heart and the lungs Beta
Beta-l receptors are found in the heart
Beta-2 receptors are found in the lungs
Muscarinic receptors (e.g., M2 and M3) are found throughout the digestive tract, in the eye, the heart, the lungs, and the bladder.
When muscarinic receptors are stimulated, muscles contract
? receptors are found on voluntary skeletal muscle such as biceps, deltoids, etc. Somatic
myosis nearsightedness
mydriasis farsightedness
Stimulation of muscarinic receptors results in a decrease in heart rate.
When the muscarinic receptors are over-stimulated, ? occurs because the contents are being moved too quickly through the digestive system diarrhea
When the muscarinic receptors are over-inhibited, ? occurs because the contents are not being moved quickly enough constipation
The digestive system also has ? receptors alpha-2
When ? receptors in the urinary bladder are stimulated, the urinary bladder relaxes and urine stays in the bladder beta-2
When ? receptors are stimulated, the urinary bladder contracts and urine is pushes out of the bladder into the urethra to be eliminated. muscarinic
Giving two medications within the same drug class or very similar drugs that do practically the exact same thing is an additive drug-drug interaction (duplication)
When alpha receptors in the arteries are stimulated, the arteries constrict and narrow the pathway blood enters to increase pressure.
The three main muscles in the eye are the radial, circular, and ciliary muscles.
The radial and circular muscles allow us to have near and far vision.
The ciliary muscle allows us to be able to see clearly during near and far vision.
? is the automatic adjustment of the lens in the eye to improve the clarity during near and far vision Accommodation
in the heart, ? stimulate the heart to contract which increases contractility and blood pressure beta cells
beta-1 stimulants such as dobutamine should be used in cardiac shock
Stimulation of muscarinic receptors results in a decrease in heart rate.
When alpha receptors are stimulated, arteries constrict, which increases blood pressure
? is commonly used for anaphylactic shock Epinephrine
The lungs have ? receptors which are found on the bronchioles beta-2
When beta receptors in the bronchioles are stimulated, bronchioles relax (or dilate) to increase the amount of air entering the lungs.
When beta receptors are inhibited, the bronchioles constrict, and wheezing may occur.
The digestive system also has ? receptors alpha-2
Alpha-2 receptors are sensory receptors that give the body an idea how much acetylcholine is being released.
Tachyphylaxis is a condition where the effectiveness of the medication diminishes over time.
Alpha-1 antagonists, such as doxazosin (Cardura), are commonly used for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)
Created by: cbowers101



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