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HESI A2 Defs

Definitions to know

Absolute zero The lowest possible temperature (-273.15C) measured in Kelvin at 0, never actually obtained
Absorption The process by which a substance is soaked up
Acid A substance that can give a proton to another substance. Acids are compounds, cont H, that can attack and dissolve many substances. Desc as weak or strong, dilute or concentrated, mineral or organic.
Acidic solution A solution with a pH lower than 7
Acidity General term for the strength of an acid in a solution (H+)
Acid Radical The negative ion left behind when an acid loses a Hydrogen ion. E.g. Cl- in HCL
Acid Salt Contains at least one H ion and can behave as an acid in chem reax, produced under conditions that do not allow complete neutralisation of the acid.
Aerobe microorganism that grows in the presence of oxygen
Amino Acid Any of 20 basic bldg blocks of proteins - composed of a free amino (NH2) end, a free carboxyl (COOH) end, and a side group (R).
Anaerobe Organism that grows in the absence of oxygen
Antibiotic resistance ability of microorganism to produce a protein that disables antibiotic or prevents transport of antibiotic to cell
Antibiotic class of natural and synthetic compounds that inhibit the growth of or kill other microbes
Antibody An immunoglobin protein produced by B-lymphocytes of the immune system that binds to specific antigen molecule.
Anticodon Nucleotide base triplet in a transfer RNA mol that pairs with a complementary base triplet, or codon, in a messenger RNA molecule.
Antigen Any foreign substance, such as a virus, bacterium, or protein that elicits an immune response by stimulating the production of antibodies.
Antigen determinant Surface feature of a microorganism or macromolecule, such as a glycoprotein, that elicits an immune response
Antimicrobial agent Any chemical or biological agent that harms the growth of microorganisms
Asexual reproduction Nonsexual means of reproduction which can include grafting and budding
Autosome A chromosome that is not involved in sex de-termination
Bacillus A rod-shaped bacterium
Backcross Crossing an org with one of its parent org's
Bacteriocide Class of antibiotics that kills bacterial cells
Bacteriophage A virus that infects bacteria. Altered forms are used as vectors for cloning DNA.
Bacteriostat Class of antibiotics that prevents growth of bacterial cells.
Bacterium Single-celled, microscopic prokaryotic organism: a single cell organism w/o a distinct nucleus.
Base Pair (bp) Pair of complementary nitrogenous bases in a DNA molecule--A-T G-C. Also, the unit of measurement for DNA sequences.
Biologics Agents (such as vaccines) that give immunity to diseases or harmful biotic stresses.
Carcinogen substance that induces cancer
Carcinoma Malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue, which forms the skin and outer cell layers of internal organs.
Catalyst Substance that promotes a chemical reax by lowering the activation energy of a chem reax, but which itself remains unaltered by the reaction.
Catalytic Antibody (ABENZYME) Antibody selected for its ability to catalyze a chemical reax by binding to and stabilizing the trasition state intermediate.
Catalytic RNA (Ribozyme) natural or synthetic RNA mol that cuts an RNA substrate
Cation Positively charged ion
Centers of Origin Usu the location in the world where the oldest cultivation of a particular crop has been identified
Centromere Central portion of the chromosome to which the spindle fibers attach during mitotic and meiotic division
Chemotherapy Treatment for cancers that involves administering chemicals toxic to malignant cells.
Chloramphenicol Antibiotic that interferes with protein synthesis.
Chromatid Each of the 2 daughter strands of a duplicated chromosome joined at the centromere during mitosis and meiosis.
Codon Group of three nucleotides that specifies addition of one of the 20 amino acids during translation of an mRNA into a polypeptide.
Coenzyme (cofactor) Organic molecule, such as a vitamin, that binds to an enzyme and is required for catalytic activity.
Colony Group of identical cells (clones) derived from a single progenitor cell.
Conjugation The joining of two bacteria cells when genetic material is transferred from one bacterium to another.
Cross-Hybridization hydrogen bonding of a single-stranded DNA seq that is partially but not entirely complementary to a single-stranded substrate.
Crossing-over The exchange of DNA sequences between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
Cross-pollination Fertilization of a plant from a plant with a differnt genetic makeup
Culture Particular kind of org. growing in a laboratory medium
Dalton Unit of measurement equal to the mass of a hydrogen atom (Avagadro's number) 1.67x10E-24 gram/L
Death Phase Final growth phase, during which nutrients have been depleted and cell number decreases.
Denature TO induce structural alterations that disrupt the biological activity of a mol. Often refers to breaking hydrogen bonds btw base pairs in ds nucleic acid mols
Density gradient certrifugation High-speed centrifugation in which mols "float" at a point where their density equals that in a grasient of cesium chloride or sucrose.
Dideoxynucleotide (didN) deoxynucleotide lacking a 3' hydroxyl group - used in DNA sequencing and treatment of viral diseases.
Digest to cut DNA molecules with one or more restriction endonucleases
Diploid cell Cell containing 2 copies of each chromosome
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) An organic acid and polymer composed of 4 nitrogenous bases; linked via intervening units of phosphate and the pentose sugar deoxyribose. Genetic material of most organisms.
DNA sequencing Procedures for determining the nucleotide sequence of a DNA fragment.
Dominant gene gene whose phenotype is present in a single copy
Dominant (acting) oncogene Gene that stimulates cell proliferation and contributes to oncogenesis when present in a single copy.
Dominant Allele is said to be dominant if it is expressed in phenotype in the presence of a recessive allele
Double-helix Desc the coiling of the antiparallel strands of the DNA molecule.
DS Complimentary DNA (dscDNA) duplex DNA mol copied from a cDNA template.
Ecology study of the interactions of org with their environment and with each other.
Ecosystem Organisms in a plant pop and the biotic and abiotic factors which impact them.
Electrophoresis Technique of separating charged molecules in a matrix to which is applied in an electrical field.
Electroporation Method for transforming DNA in which high voltage pulses of electricity are used to open pores in cell membranes, through which foreign DNA can pass.
Endophyte An organism that lives inside another
Enzymes Proteins that control the various steps of all chemical reactions
Eukaryote Org. possessing a nucleus and other membrane-bound vessicles - protist, fungi, plant and animal kingdoms
Evolution long-term process through which a population of org accumulates genetic changes that enable its members to successfully adapt to env cond and to be exploit food resources.
Flanking region The DNA sequences extendingon either side of a specific locus or gene.
Fungus microogranism that lacks chlorophyll
Gene insertion The addition of one or more copies of a normal gene into a defective chromosome.
Gene A locus on a chromosome that encodes for a specific protein or several related proteins. It is considered the functional unit of heredity.
Genetic engineering The manipulation of an organism's genetic endowment by introducing or eliminating specific genes through modern molecular biology technologies.
Genetic marker A gene or group of genes used to "mark" or track the action of microbes.
Genotype structure of DNA that determines the expression of a trait.
Genus A category incl closely related species. Interbreeding between organisms within the same catagory can occur.
Growth factor A serum protein that stimulates cell division when it binds to its cell-surface receptor.
Haploid cell A cell containing only one set, or half the usual (diploid) number of chromosomes.
Hemophilia An X-linked recessive genetic disease, caused by a mutation in the gene for clotting factor VIII (hemophilia A) or clotting factor IX (hemophilia B), which leads to abnormal blood clotting.
Homologous chromosomes Chromosomes that have the same linear arrangement of genes--a pair of matching chromossomes in a diploid organism.
Homologous recombination Exchange of DNA fragments between two DNA molecules or chromatids of paired chromosomes (during cross over)at the site of identical nucleotide sequences.
Host An organism that contains another organism.
Hydrogen Bond A relatively weak bond formed between a Hydrogen atom (covalently bound to a N or O2 atom) and a N and O2 with an unshared e- pair.
Hydrolysis A reaction in which a molecule of water is added at the site of cleavage of a molecule to two products.
In situ Refers to performing assays or manipulations with intact tissues.
In vivo Refers to biological processes that take place within a living org or cell.
Incomplete dominance A condition where a heterozygous off-spring has a phenotype that is distinctly different from, and intermediate to, the parental phenotypes.
Insulin A peptide hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that regulates the level of sugar in the blood.
Interferon A family of small proteins that stimulate viral resistance in cells.
Lysis The destruction of the cell membrane
Malignant Having the properties of cancerous growth.
Meiosis The reduction division process by which haploid gametes and spores are formed, consisting of a single duplication of the genetic material followed by two mitotic divisions.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) class of RNA mol's that copies the genetic info from DNA, in the nucleus, and carries it to the ribosomes, in the cytoplasm, where it is translated into a protein.
Metabolism The biochemical processes that sustain a living cell or organism.
Mitosis The replication of a cell to form two daughter cells with identical sets of chromosomes.
Molecular biology The study of the biochemical and molecular interactions within living cells.
Mutagen Any agent or process that can cause mutations.
Mutation An alteration in DNA structure or sequence of a gene.
Natural selection Differential survival and reproduction of organisms with genetic characteristics that enable them to better utilize environmental resources.
Nucleic acids deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are made up of long chains of molecules called nucleotides.
Nucleotide A building block of DNA and RNA, consisting of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. Together, the nucleotides form codons, which when strung together form genes, which in turn link to form chromosomes.
OSHA One of the US agencies responsible for regulation of biotechnology. The major law under which the agency has regulatory powers is the Occupational Health and Safety Act.
Organelle A cell structure that carries out a specialized function in the life of a cell.
Ovum female gamete
Parasitism The closest association of two or more dissimilar organisms where the association is harmful to at least one.
Pathogen Organism which can cause disease in another organism.
Persistence Ability of an org. to remain in a particular setting for a period of time after it is introduced.
Phenotype Observable characteristics of an organism, the expression of a gene alleles (genotype) as an observable physical or biochemical trait.
Phospholipid A class of lipid mols in which a phosphate group is linked to a glycerol and two fatty acyl groups. A chief component of biological membranes.
Plaque a clear spot on a lawn of bacteria or cultured cells where cells have lysed by viral infection.
Polymer A molecule composed of repeated subunits.
Polypeptide (protein) Polymer composed of multiple amino acid units linked by peptide bonds.
Polysaccharide A polymer composed of multiple units of monosaccharides (simple sugar).
Primary cell A cell or cell line taken directly from a living organism, which is not immortalized.
Prokaryote Bacterial cell lacking a true nucleus; its DNA is usually in one long strand.
Protease An enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds that link amino acids in protein molecules. An enzyme that adds phosphate groups to a protein mol at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues.
Protein A polymer of amino acids linked via peptide bonds and which may be composed of two or more polypeptide chains.
Recessive gene Characterized as having a phenotype expressed only when both copies of the gene are mutated or missing.
Recombinant DNA process of cutting and recombining DNA fragments from different sources as means to isolate genes or to alter their structure and funtion.
Recombinant A cell that results from recombination of genes
Retrovirus member of a class of RNA viruses that uses the enzyme reverse transcriptase to reverse copy its genome into a DNA intermediate, which integrates into the hostcell chromosome. Many nat occurring cancers of vertebrate animals are caused by retroviruses.
Reverse genetics Using linkage analysis and polymorphic markers to isolate a disease gene in the absense of a known metabolic defect, then using the DNA seq of the cloned gene to predict the aa sequence of its encoded protein.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) The RNA component of the ribosome
RNA (ribonucleic acid) Organic acid c/o repeating nucleotide units of a, g, c, and uracil, whose ribose components are linked by phosphodiester bonds
Sexual reproduction process where two cells (gametes) fuse to form one hybrid, fertilized cell.
Subunit vaccine Vaccine c/o a purified antigenic determinant that is separated from the virulent organism.
Synapsis Pairing of homologous chromosome pairs during prophase of the first meiotic division, when crossing over occurs.
Taq polymerase A heat-stable DNA polymerase isolated from the bacterium. Therrnus aquaticus, used in PCR.
Telomere end of a chromosome
Transcription The process of creating a complementary RNA copy of DNA.
Vaccine Preparation of dead or weakend pathogen, or of derived antigenic determinants, that is used to induce info of antibodies or immunity against the pathogen.
Vector an autonomously replicating DNA mol into which foreign DNA fragments are inserted and then propagated in a host cell. Also living carriers of genetic material from plants to plant, i.e. insects.
Virulence The degree of ability of an organism to cause disease.
Virus Infectious particle composed of a protein capsule and a nucleic acid core, which is dependent on a host org for replication A ds DNA copy of an RNA virus genome that is integrated into the host chrom during lysogenic infection.
Wild type An organism as found in nature; the org before it is genetically engineered.
X-linked disease a genetic disease caused by a mutation on the X chromosome. In such recessive conditions- a normal female "carrier" passes on mutated X chrom to an affected son.
Abrasion injury to the integrity of the skin resulting in skin loss
Abrupt describes a sudden change that occurs without warning
Abscess pus forming pocket
Abstain the deliberate effort to refrain from an action
Acapnia low level of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the blood
Accept to willingly receive something; the process of granting approval
Access the freedom to use something as one chooses; the permission or ability to enter or approach a specific area
Accountable responsible for actions or explanations
Acne Inflammation of the skin related to glands and hair
Adenoiditis Inflammation of the adenoids
Adhere the process of binding one thing to another using glue, tape, or another agent; refers to the action of maintaining loyalty or support
Adverse in a contrary fashion; can cause harm; may also refer to something that is in opposition to one's interests
Alopecia baldness
Amenorrhea Lacking menstrual discharge
Annual duration of a single year; an occurrence that takes place once each year
Anorchism Absence of testes
Anoxia oxygen (O2) deficiency
Anterior frontal position
Anteroposterior frontal to back positioning
Anuria No urine production
Aphonia no voice
Apnea not breathing
Apply to put something to use; having a relevant or valid connection to something else
Atelectasis Abnormal expansion of the lung
Audible capable of being heard
Azoturia Elevated or excessive level of nitrogen substrates and urea in urine
Endogenous the growth from a deep tissue; refers to cond's that arise from factors that are internal to an organism
Endoscopy inspection of a body cavity - visually
Enuresis Uncontrollable urination
Epidermal related to the skin
Epididymitis Inflammation of the epididymis
Epididymis one of a pair of long, tightly coiled ducts that carry sperm from the seminiferous tubules of the testes to the vas deferens
Epithelial Related to epethelium tissue
Epithelioma skin cell tumor
Erythema redness in appearance
Erythrocyte red blood cell
Erythrocytosis elevated rbc count
Erythroderma redness of the skin
Eupnea normal breathing
Exacerbate to cause something to become more intense in nature; esp an increase in violence or severity
Excess surpassing usual limitations; unnecessary indulgence
Exogenous the growth from superficial or shallow tissue; refers to conditions caused by factors external to an organism
Exposure being subject to a condition or influence; making a secret fact known publicly
External being outside the human body; existing outside the confines of a specific space or institution
Fibroma tumor made of fibrous cells
Fibrosarcoma Malignant tumor made of fibrous cells
Fissure crack in skin's integrity; cleft or groove on the surface of an organ; lineal fault on a bony surface that occurs during development of a part
Flaccid the state of not being firm; lacking vigor, force or youthful firmness
Flush to chase from a place of concealment; forcing one substance out of a space by introducing another
Gaping something wide open or exposed
Hepatosalpinx fallopian tube with blood present
Hidradenitis inflammation of sweat glands
HIV retrovirus causing AIDS
Hydration taking up of elements with the aid of water; constant supply of fluids
Hydrosalpinz water in the fallopian tube
Hygiene the science of health-inducing practices
Hymenectomy removal of the hypmen
Hyperplasia elevated number of cells
Hypocapnia decreased level of CO2 in the blood stream
Hypodermic related to under the skin
Hypoplasia decreased numbers of cells required for normal organ development
Hypoxemia limited O2 in the bloodstream
Hysteropexy fixation of the uterus
Iatrology study of medicine
Indicence arrival of something at a surface; something that occurs or affects something else
Induration firm point or points, possibly in the periwound area
Inferior below a point of origin
Inflamed to incite an intensely emotional state; also refers to something that has be set on fire
Ingest to take into the mouth for digestion
Insidious something or someone who is enticing but dangerous; slow-developing dangerousness
Intact remaining whole or untouched
Internal inside the body or the mind
Invasive tending to spread or infringe upon something
Karyocite cellular unit with a nucleus
Keloid scar tissue that has exhibited excess growth
Keratogenic creation of horny like tissue appearance
Labile unstable; constantly undergoing chemical or physical change or breakdown
Laceration wound with irregular borders; jagged
Latent not presently active but with the potential to become active
Lateral opposite of medial; rel to the point of origin
Leiodermia smooth skin
Leiomyoma tumor made of smooth muscle cells
Leiomyosarcoma malignant tumor made of smooth muscle cells
Lethargic sluggish, indifferent, or apathetic
Leukocyte white blood cell
Leukocytosis elevated wbc's
Lipoid fat-like substance
Lipoma tumor composed of fat
Liposarcoma malignant tumor made of fat cells
Lithotripsy crushing of a stone
Lumbar lower back region
Mammoplasty repair of the breasts
Mammotome devise used to cut breast tissue
Manifestation act of becoming outwardly visible
Mastitis inflammation of the breast tissue
Mastectomy removal of breast
Mastoptosis drooping of breast
Menarche start of menstruation
Menometrorrhagia flow of blood during menstruation, and between cycles
Melanocarcinoma malignant black tumor
Melanoma tumor of epithelial tissue
Metastasis progression of a disease between organs
Metrorrhea uterus discharge that is excessive
Micturate voiding or urination
Myometritis inflammation of the uterine tissue
Myopathy muscular disease
Necrosis cellular death; often resulting in black, dead tissue
Neopathy new-sprung disease
Nephrectomy removal of a kidney
Nephrogram x-ray of the kidney
Nephrolysis kidney separation
Nephropexy fixation of the kidney
Nephroma kidney tumor
Nephromegaly kidney enlargement
Nephroptosis sagging kidney
Nephrostomy creating an opening of the kidney
Neuroma tumor involving nerves
Nocturia urination at night
Nutrient something that provides nourishment
Bilateral present on two sides
cast hard protective device applied to protect a broken bone while the bone heals
Compensatory offsetting or making up for something
Complication an undesired problem due to the result of another event
Concave rounded invard
Consistency Degree of viscosity; how thick or thin a fluid is
Constrict to draw together to shrink
Contingent dependent
Contour Shape or outline of a shape
Contraindication Reason why something is not advisable or should not be done
Defecate expel feces
Deficit a deficiency or lack
Depress press downward
Diameter distance across the center of an object
Dilate enlarge or expand
Distended enlarge or expanded from pressure
Inflamed reddened, swollen, warm, and often tender
Manifestation An indication or sign of a condition
Nutrient a substance or ingredient that provides nourishment
Oral Given through or affecting the mouth
Overt Obvious, easily observed
Parameter A characteristic or constant factor
Paroxysmal Beginning suddenly or abruptly
Patent Open
Potent Producing a strong effect
Precaution preventative measure
Precipitous Rapidly uncontrolled
Predispose to make more susceptible or more likely to occur
Preexisting Already present
prognosis anticipated or expected course or outcome
rationale underlying reason
Untoward adverse or negative
Void excrete urine
Volume amt of space occupied by a fluid
Abdominopelvic cavity composed of the abdomen and the pelvis
Absorption Mvmt of nutrients from the digestive tract to the bloodstream
Actin Protein making up the I band of the sacromere
Amino acid building block of proteins
Antibody special proteins that protect the body from foreign substances
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate, energy
Atria Upper chambers of the heart
Bile Produced in the liver to emulsify fat in the stomach
Cartilage tissue made of cells and fibers that connect and support
ceruminous gland gland of the ear that produces ear wax
Chromosomes Bodies within the nucleus made of DNA and proteins called histomes
Cilia Small hairlike projections on some cells
CNS central nervous system: brain and spinal cord
Coronal Plane Imaginary line passing through the body fro the head to feet that divides the body anteriorly and posteriorly
Cranial cavity body cavity containing the brain
Diaphragm Dome-shaped breathing muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Diffusion mvmt of materials from high concentration to lower concentration
Dorsal Horn Cresent-shaped projection of gray matter within the spinal cord where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord
ECG electrocardiogram, a record of the electrical activity of the heart
Embryo Prenatal development time between zygote and fetus
Endometrium inner lining of the uterus
Enzymes functional proteins; usu end in "ase"
Foramen Magnum A passage in the skull bone through which the spinal cord enters the spinal column
Glucose a simple sugar found in certain foods, produced by plants
Homeostasis The physiologic steady state that is naturally maintained within the body
Hypothalamus Portion of the brain that regulates body temp, sleep, and appetite
Joints articulations between adjoining bones
Keratin a tough, fibrous, insoluble protein forming the primary component of hair, skin, nails,and tooth enamel
Keratinized Epithelium dead cells of the epidermis
Lacteal vessel found within villi of intestinal wall, where fat nutrients are absorbed
Adjective a descriptive word that modifies a noun or pronoun
Adverb a word that modifies a verb, adj, or another adverb and indicates when, how, where, why, or how much
Article a word that is used to limit a noun, either indefinite (a or an) or definite (the)
Clause a group of words that are related and contain both a subject and verb
Direct object the noun or pronoun that recieves the action of the verb and answers the question whom or what
Noun a word for a person, place or thing
Object of the preposition the noun, pronoun, phrase, or clause to which the prep refers
Phrase a group of words that are related but do not contain a verb and a subject together
Possessive pronoun a pronoun used to indicate ownership
Preposition a word such as by, at, to, or from that gives additional info, usu in relationship to something else in the sentence
Pronoun a word that replaces and refers to a noun
subject a noun or pronoun that performs the action of a verb. If a sentence contains a verb or being or a linking verb such as be, feel, become, or look--the subject of the sentence is the noun or pronoun being described
Verb a word that shows an action or a state of being
antecedent the noun that a pronoun refers to e.g. Mom went to the store before I could remind her to buy milk. Mom is the antecedent
Coordinating conjunctions words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal E.g. for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS)
Subordinating conjunction a word that joins two or more clauses and makes the clause that contains it dependent on another clause; making the clause that cont the sub conj of less importance E.g. because, though, although, as, as if, when, and while
Nominalization the making of a noun from a verb, adverb, or adj
Active verbs verbs that show an action performed by the subject
Predicate the part of the sentence that tells what the subject does or what is done to the subject. It includes the verb and all the words that modify the verb.
Predicate Adjective an adj that follows a linking verb and helps to explain the subject. E.g. My professors are wonderful.
Predicate Nominative Noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and helps to explain the subject E.g. Professors are teachers.
Ligaments tissue connecting bone to bone
Median Plane imaginary line dividing the body or body part into right and left portions
Mediastinum Space within the thoracic cavity that houses all the organs of the chest except the lungs
metabolism the sum total uses of ATP in the body
Myosin A protein that makes up nearly half of the proteins in muscle cells
orbits Cavities containing the eyes
Organelle A structurally discrete component of a cell that performs a specific fx
pH Measurement associated with acids and bases pH=-log(Ah) based on the activity (Ah) of hydrogen ions dissolved in a solution
Phagocytosis Engulfing of materials by wbc's in the body
Plasma the liquid portion of the blood
Pulmonary Circulation Blood flow through a network of vessels between the heart and the lungs for the oxygenation of blood and the removal of carbon dioxide
Ribosome Organelle of the cell where protein synthesis takes place
Sagittal An imaginary line running from front to back that divides the body into right and left portions
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Organelle of the muscle fiber that stores Calcium
Sebaceous glands Oil glands of the skin
Spinal Column backbone that houses and protects the spinal cord
subcutaneous tissue Layer of tissue under the dermis that contains adipose tissue
Sudoriferous Glands sweat glands
synovial membranes Loose, connective tissue that llines the joint cavity
systemic circulation The general blood circulation of the body, not including the lungs
Thoracic Cavity chest cavity
Transverse Plane Imaginary line dividing the body or body parts into top and bottom portions
vasoconstriction a narrowing of the diameter of a blood vessel
Vasodilation widening of the diameter of a blood vessel
ventral horns The anterior columns of the gray matter of the spinal cord
ventricles lower chambers of the heart
zygote fertilized egg, from the time it is fertilized to implantation
Average speed the distance an object travels divided by the time the object travels
Velocity speed in a specific direction
Acceleration the change in velocity over a period of time
Rate of Gravity 9.8 m/sec2
Newton's First law of Motion a body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion, unless acted on by an unbalance force F=ka
Newton's Second Law of Motion the constant of proportionality (k) is equal to the mass of the object F=ma
Newton's Third Law of Motion For every action there must be an equal and oppisite reaction.
Friction opposes motion and is expressed in Newtons
Crest High point of a wave
Trough Low point of a wave
amplitude Maximum displacement from equilibrium
Wavelength Distance between successive identical parts of a wave
Frequency Vibrations or oscillations per unit of time. Expressed in vibrations per second and measured in hertz (s-1)
concave positive focal lengths form a variety of image shapes, sizes and orientation depending on the focal length of the mirror where the obj is place.
convex mirror negative focal lengths smaller and upright
Scientific Argument 1. Problem identification 2. Question asked 3. Hypothesis developed 4. Data collection & experimentation 5. analysis 6. conclusion
Diapedesis the process of wbc's squeezing through the cappilary slits in response to cytokines, occurs, followwed by cellular adhesion molecules (CAM's) guiding the wbc's to the site of injury or infection
Created by: JaeLaw23