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Health science

What is the source of the disease? What is the treatment of the disease? Source: evil spirits and demons. Treatment: boring a hole in the skull were used to treat insanity, herbs and plants were used as medicine.
Why were animals used for research in primitive times? Most religions did not allow dissection, or cutting apart the body. So animals were dissected to learn about the different body parts.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Egyptians during ancient times? Egyptians: recorded health records.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Chinese during the ancient times? Chinese: belief in the need to cure the spirit and norish the entire body.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Greeks during ancient times? Greeks: stress that a good diet and cleanliness would prevent disease.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Romans during ancient times? Romans: sanitation systems, by building sewers to carry away waste and aqueduct to deliver clean water.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Michelangelo and deVinci during Renaissance? Michelangelo and deVinci: used dissection in order to draw the human body more realistically.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Vesalius during Renaissance? Vesalius: made the first anatomy book.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Jenner during 16-18th centuries? Jenner developed a vaccination for smallpox in 1796.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Pare during 16-18th centuries? Pare: Established use of ligatures to bind arteries and stop bleeding. Eliminated use of boiling oil to cauterize wounds. Improved treatment of fractures and promoted use of artificial limbs.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Von Leeuwenhoek during 16-18th centuries? Von Leeuwenhoek: invented the microscope in 1666.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by The role of on apothecary during 16-18th centuries? The role of the apothecary: made prescribed medication and sold medication.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Florence Nightingale during 19th century? Florence Nightingale: Established efficient and sanitary nursing unit, opened nightingale school and home for nurses, began the professional education of nurses.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Lister and Pasteur during 19th century? Lister: started using disinfection and antiseptics during surgery to prevent infection. Pasteur: proved the microorganisms cause disease, created a vaccine for rabies.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Fleming during 20th century? Fleming: discovered penicillin.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Salk during 20th century? Salk: developed the polio vaccine using dead polio virus.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Crick and Watson during 20th century? Crick and Watson: described the structure of DNA and how it carries genetic information.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Sabin during 20th century? Sabin: developed an oral live virus polio vaccine.
What are the advances in medicine contributed by Burnard during 20th century? Burnard: performed the first successful heart transplant.
What are the 3 main reasons for high medical costs? 1) Technological advances. 2) The aging population. 3) Health related lawsuits.
How can DRG's reduce medical costs? Diagnostic related groups: patients with certain diagnoses who are admitted to hospital are classified in one payment group. A limit is placed on the cost of care.
How can Combination of services reduce medical costs? Combination of services: health care agencies join together or share specific services, care can be provided to a larger number of people at a decreased cost per person.
How can Bulk purchasing reduce medical costs? Bulk purchasing: buying equipment and supplies in larger quantities at reduced prices.
How can Preventative care reduce medical costs? Preventative services: provide care before acute or chronic disease occur.
What is the role of the Agency for health care policy? Agency for health care policy: researches the quality of health care delivery and identifies the standards of treatment that should be provided.
What is Geriatric care? Geriatric care: individuals are living longer due to the advances in health care.
What is the role of OBRA? OBRA: is the development of many regulations regarding long term care and home health care.
What is telemedicine? Telemedicine: involves computer systems to provide medical and health care services.
What is Holistic health care? Holistic health care: is care that promotes physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and spiritual well being by treating the whole body, mind and spirit.
What is the difference between alternative and complementary therapies? Alternative therapies: methods of treatment that are used in place of biomedical therapies. Complementary therapies: methods of treatment that are used along with conventional medical therapies.
a- an- without, lack of, absence of
anter(i) anter(o) front, forward
bronch(o) bronchial tube, bronchus
cardi(o) heart
cephal(o) head
cerebro cerebrum, brain
cervico neck, cervix
cranio skull, cranium
endo- inside, inner, within
gustro stomach
gluco sugar, glucose
glyco sugar, sweet
hemo, hemato blood
hepato liver
histo tissue
hyper- excessive, high, above, upward
hypo- deficient, low, below, down
-iasis condition of disease
inter- between, among
intra- within, inside
megalo- large, enlarged
my(o) muscle
-oma tumor, abnormal growth
oste(o) bone
poly- much, many
ren(o) kidney
thorac(o) chest thorax
abd abdomen
abg arterial blood gas
ac before meals
ad right ear
aids acquired immune deficiency syndrome
am morning, before noon, may be am
amb ambulate, walk
amt amount
ap apical pulse
as left ear
as tol as tolerated
au both ears
av average
ax axilla, axillary, armpit
bid twice a day
bl blood
bl wk blood work
bm bowel movement
bp blood pressure
br bed rest
brp bathroom privileges
bs blood sugar
bsc bedside commode
ca cancer
cal calorie
cap capsul
cbc complete blood count
cc cubic centimeter
CC chief complaint
ccu critical care unit
cebbs clear equal bilateral breath sounds
chf congestive heart failure
cicu cardiac intensive care unit
ck check
cl liq clear liquid
cm centimeter
c/o complains of
CO2 carbon dioxiode
cp chief complaint
cpr cardio pulmonary resuscitation
ct computerized
cva cerebral vascular accident (stroke)
d day
dat diet as tolerated
d/c discontinue
diff different white blood cell count
dil dilute, dissolve
dm diabetes mellitus
dnr do not resuscitate
doa dead on arrival
dob date of birth
dod date of death
dr dream, drainage
Created by: Samantha Evans
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