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Barry Patho I

Barry anesthesia patho wk1

QuestionAnswer
What levels create an organism chemical, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system are the levels of an organism
4 characteristics of life ability to process energy(metabolism), capacity to grow/develop, capacity for reproduction, ability to sense and response to changes in the environment
What is the simplest living unit the cell
What is a tissue group of identical cells working towards a common goal (cells of common structure and function)
What are the 4 types of tissues epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
7 Types of epithelial tissues simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal(transitional), stratified columnar, psuedostratified columnar
Simple Squamous function/location passive transport; lines body cavities, endothelium of cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels, lung alveoli
Simple cuboidal function/location secretion and absorption (active transport); lines ducts and tubules of organs, forms epithelium of ovary and seminiferous tubules
Simple columnar function/location secretion and absorption (active transport); lining of digestive tract
Stratified squamous function/location protection against friction, drying, mechanical insult; skin, lining of mouth, esophagus, anus, vagina
Stratified cuboidal (transitional) function/location permits stretching, protective lining of ducts; lining of ducts of sweat glands, testes, tubules, lining of ureters and bladder
Stratified columnar function/location lines ducts ; not common, lining of salivary gland ducts, pharynx, larynx
Pseudostratified columnar function/location moves material via cilia; lining of trachea, bronchi, some of male and female urethra
3 types of connective tissues loose, dense, special
3 types of loose connective tissues recticular(holds shapes of organs & filters fluids; stroma of soft organs, marrow cavity), areolar (support/packing material; btwn functional units of organs), adipose (protection, energy, insulation; around all organs and in fat pads)
2 types of dense connective tissues regular(parallel arrangement/unidirectional strength; tendons & ligaments) , irregular (strength in all directions; fascia, organs, capules, septa, shealths
4 types of special connective tissues bone(hemopoisis; skeleton,marrow cavity),hyaline cartilage(articulation surface,protection;epiphysis of bones, fetal skeleton,tracheal rings), Elastic cart.(flexibility;epiglottis,external ear), fibrous cart.(strength;intervertebral discs,pubic symphysis)
2 component of nervous tissue neuron and neuroglia
Neuron function/location transmit nervous pulses to other neurons and to target organs; withing the CNS and PNS
3 types of Neuroglia astrocytes (some control over circulation in nerous; attached to blood vessels in CNS tissue), oligodendrocytes (source of myelination; btwn neurons, wrapped around axons in PNS), microglia (phagocytosis within CNS; throughout CNS and cerebrospinal fluid)
3 types of muscle tissue smooth(visceral), cardiac, skeletal(striated)
Smooth(Visceral) muscle tissue function/location involuntary innervation, cells contract and transmit impulses; walls of hollow tubular viscera, iris of eye, vessels
Cardiac muscle tissue function/location involuntary innervations, capable of contraction w/o nervous stimulation, cells transmit impulses to adjacent cells; structure of the heart
Skeletal(striated) muscle tissue function/location voluntary innervations, cells contract; attached to skeletal components
What is an organ 2 or more tissues joined in a unit to serve a common function
What are the 2 types of tissues of the organ parenchyma (main functional tissue), and stroma (supportive/structural framework)
What is an organ system group of organs working together for one purpose
What is an organism contiguous group of organs working together toward a common goal
What is homeostasis maintaining ranges/balance by use of feedback
What are the 2 types of feedback negative feedback-eliminates or reduces the original disturbance (ie insulin, glucagon) and positive feedback-increases the original disturbance(ie labor contractions stimulate the hypophysis to release oxytocin, blood coagulation)
Which type of feedback system is more likely to go out of control positive feedback (ie hypercoagulation)
2 main body cavities ventral(anterior), dorsal(posterior)
Dorsal cavity is divided into what 2 cavities Cranial(brain), vertebral (spinal cord) they are divided at the C1 level
The ventral cavity is divided into what 2 cavities Thoracic, and Abdominal/pelvic cavity, separated at the level of the diaphram
The thoracic cavity is divided into what 3 cavities mediastinum (superior & pericardial), pleural cavities (R&L)
The abdominal and pelvic cavity are dived at what level the ileac spine
Visceral is what layer the inner layer continuous with the organ
Parietal is what layer the outer layer
The most basic functional unit of the body The cell
Largest cell in the body the Egg, ovum
Smallest cell in the body the sperm cell
Cell membrane is a phospolipid bilayer with fluidity
Cell membrane functions Establish the limits of the cell (holds it together), controls passage of materials in and out (gated channels, impermeable to most water soluble molecules, cell-cell recognition, mobility(cilia, flagellum, vili), maintains electrical potentials
Nucleus functions control center, storehouse of genetic information, replication of DNA, transcription into mRNA
Nucleus consists of porous nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope), nucleoplasm, nucleolus (where rRNA is made and ribosomes are assembled, chromosomes (consists of genes)
Cytoplasm (cytosol) is lies btwn the cell membrane and the nucleus, has cytoskeleton, is a colloidal suspension of water (80%), protein (15%), lipids (3%), carbohydrates (1%) and electrolytes
Mitocondria (power plant) decription/function rod shaped, double membrane bound organelle packed with enzymes for electron transport chain, Site of krebs cycle and electron transport chain; cellular respiration(oxidation) to make ATP (glucose + o2 co2 + h2o + energy, ADP + P +energyATP,
Ribosome (protein factory) consists of rRNA and protein; site of protein synthesis
Lysosomes (sucide bag) contains enzymes (hydrolases) which breakdown carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids; digestion of foreign material and old cellular components
Centriole microtubules involved in cellular division (mitosis), not in nerves or muscle cells
Endoplasmic recticulum internal transport system , rough(ribosomes are attached) is responsible for synthesis of proteins componenet of cell organelles, smooth (no ribosomes) is responsible for synthesis of phosolipids, steroids and fatty acids
Golgi Body packing and distribution center, stores and packages secretory products into secretory vesicles(which break off), formation of glycoproteins, lipoproteins and lysosomes
Components of DNA pentose(deoxyribose), phosphate, nitrogenous base (cytosine, guanine, thymine, adenine), double stranded
Triplets of bases that specify amino acids codons
Components of RNA pentose(ribose), phosphate, nitrogenous base (cytosine, guanine, uracil, adenine), single stranded
RNA polymerase function binds to a promoter site(beginning of a gene), then pulls the strands apart to allow for addition of complementary nucleotides, forming mRNA
mRNA function leaves the nucleus and attaches to ribosomes were translation begins
Aminoacyl- tRNA synthetase function attaches correct amino acid to the tRNA(which has the anticodon)
What are the two main phases of Mitosis Interphase and Mitotic phase (M)
What are the 3 components of interphase G1(growth), S (DNA is synthesized/replicated-chromatin), G2 (Growth/preparation for division)
What are the 4 phases of Mitosis Prophase(chromosomes matched into 46 paired chromotids,nuclear mem.disappears,centrioles move to opposite sides),Metaphase(spindle fibers pull chromosomes to the center),Anaphase(chromosomes are split, pulling 46 chromosomes to each side), Telophase(nucle
What is Cytokinesis Happens in Mitotic phase, NOT part of Mitosis; is the splitting of the cell creating two identical diploid cells
Created by: dupy6