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Nut. test 1

Identify the six types of nutrients found in foodIdentify which of them yield energy upon metabolismIdentify which are organic and which are inorganicIdentify which are macronutrients and which are micronutrients 1. Carbohydrate- Yield energy, Organic, MACRO 2. Lipids- Yield energy, Organic, MACRO3. Protein- Yield energy, Organic, MACRO 4. Vitamins- NO energy, Organic, micro5. Water- NO energy, Inorganic, MACRO 6. Minerals- NO energy, Inorganic, micro
Briefly discuss the types of research design used in nutritional studies, giving an example of each. Example 1 Scientific research where a specific function may be measured. (Estimated Average Requirements,Recommended Dietary Allowances-uses the EAR to form an average requirement to function.)
Discuss the factors involved in evaluating nutrition information for accurateness and reliability. *Nutrition on the net is not sensored by the gov so anyone can publish it. It may be good but also good be misleading, incomplete & inaccurate. *The same can be said about info. on the news. *Get info from gov approved source
EAR Estimated Average Requirements- Support a specific function in the body and is the recomended average. Exceeds that average of of most healthy people.
RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances- Scientificly based. It used the Estimated Average Requirement as a base. Exceeds practically all healthy persons.
AI Adequate Intakes- NOT scientifically based. Appears to meet the needs of the average healthy population. No RDA may be established. Used in cases where there is no specific function that can be measured (EAR)
UL Tolerable Upper Intake level- This is the max daily amount. Appears safe for most healthy people. *If intake is higher there is risk of adverse health effects.
AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges- A range of intakes for energy nutrients. Used for Carbs, Lipids & Protein. Provides adequate energy, reduces the risk of chronic diseases. Listed in the form of (% of kcals)
EER Estimated Energy Requirement- Average daily energy intake (kcals) needed to maintain energy balance and good health. It is set at the average NOT based on the personal need but the population's need.
Identify the amounts recommended for a 2,000 kcal diet from each of the groups in the USDA Food Guide 2000kcal diet: Veggies- 2 1/2C Fruit- 2C Grains- 6oz Meat/Legumes- 5 1/2oz Milk- 3C Oil-6tsp Empty kcal-267kcal
Discuss the intended uses for the Daily Values Used to compare foods. Based on a 2000kcal diet. These values are based on the highest RDA and AI.
Identify the parts of the gastro intestinal tract (the anatomy). See Slide
List the organs and glands that secrete digestive enzymes and digestive juices. Salivary glands- amylase (Carbohydrase) Pancrease & Sm. Intestine- (Bile from Pancrease neutralizes bolus in first few inches of sm. intestines) Carbohydrases, lipases, protesases. Liver makes bile and stores it in gallbladder- Bile emulsifies fat
Identify the carbohydrates as monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides. Monosaccharides- single sugar (Glucose, Fructose, Galactose) Disacchrides- 2 sugars (Lactose, Sucrose, Maltose) Polysacchrides- more than 2 sugars, complex carb (Glycogen, Amylose, Cellulose)
Briefly describe the chemical differences that make up the types of carbohydrates (Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose, Glycogen, Amylose) Disacchrides-> Maltose: Glucose & Glucose Sucrose: Glucose & Fructose Lactose: Glucose & Galactose Polysacchrides-> Amylose: Glucose & Glucose & Glucose... Glycogen: Not dietary Cellulose: Fibers- insoluable-does not hydrolize
Discuss the steps in the digestion of dietary carbohydrates, identifying the location in the digestive tract where these processes occur for each carbohydrate. 1.Salivary Amylase-Hydrolyze starch into shorter polysacchrides (maltose) 2.Stomach- min hydrolized, denatured salivary amylase. 3.Pancreas: Release of amylase after stomach 4.Sm. intestine-maltase, sucrase & lactase
•Know the two hormones that control glucose levels of the blood and the action of each hormone. (Increased glucose) *Insulin-Synthesized by pancreas and released when glucose is too high, encouraging cells to take glucose out of blood. When Muscle & liver have enough they store it in the form of GLYCOGEN. Liver stores fat it in adipose tissue too.
•Briefly describe the three major metabolic pathways available to blood glucose
Know how the recommendations for healthy intake of carbohydrates and what foods contribute these nutrients.-> AMDR AMDR 45-65% daily kcals Variety of whole grains, vegtable and legumes
Know how the recommendations for healthy intake of carbohydrates and what foods contribute these nutrients. -> RDA RDA 130g/day (amount needed for brain activity) DV 300g/day (based on 2000 kcal diet 60% of diet) Variety of whole grains, vegtable and legumes
Recommendations for fiber intake (Daily Values and the American Dietetics Association recommendations) *DV; 25g DRI: 14g/1000kcal *ADA: 20-35g/day WHO: Do not exceed 40g/day
◦Recommendations for added sugar intake(both the DRI and the WHO recommendations) *DRI: No more than 25% of daily kcal *WHO: No more than 10% of daily kcal
•Identify the chemical elements found in lipids Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen
•List the 3 classes of lipids and an example of each *Triglycerides- 3 fatty acids on a glycerol "backbone" *Phospholipids- Lecithin *Sterols-Cholesterol
•Identify the ways fatty acids can differ from each other The number of carbons, and degree of hydration (Saturated, monosaturated, polysaturated)
•Identify the number of kilocalories in one pound of body fat 3500 kcal
•Identify the end products of lipid digestion.
•List the important roles of lipids in the body and in food Triglycerides (95% of lipids in food)-energy, stored as fat in adipose cell, Essential fatty acids used to make other molecules. Phospholipids- not dietary essential,
•Describe how lipids are transported in the blood stream
•Identify the importance of cholesterol recognizing the relationship between LDL and HDL cholesterol and how it is associated with heart disease.
•Identify the recommendations for the % of the total kcals should come from fat *AMDR: 20-35% of kcal *FDA: less than 30% of kcal from fat, less than 10% from saturated fat.
•Identify the recommended intake for cholesterol and reasons for the recommendations <300mg cholesterol
•Identify the recommended intake for saturated fatty acids and reasons for the recommendations <10% of 2000 kcal diet= 20g
•List the recommendations for the healthy balance of omega 3 to omega 6 fatty acids in the diet and identify dietary practices that can result in a healthy balance
Fatty acid, essential fatty acids Organic acid with many carbon atoms, essential fatty acids are needed for
Triglycerides – fatty acids, glycerol, mixed triglycerides Triglycerides- made of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol "backbone", main form of fat in the diet, major form of fat storage.
Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids Saturated-"saturated" in hydrogen
Omega –3- fatty acid Polyunsaturated fat, with 1st double bond on the 3rd carbon on the Omega side. (Lowers blood Cholesterol, and decreases blood clotting)
Omega –6- fatty acid Polyunsaturated fat, with 1st double bond on the 6th carbon on the Omega side. (
Oxidation Oxygen combining, losing electrons making the fat rancid
Hydrogenation (cis and trans fatty acid conformations) Hydrogenation-adding Hydrogens to saturate the fatty acids. When a partical hydrogenation occurs the fatty acid chain changes shape to Trans
Phospholipid, lecithin Hydrophobic tail and Hydrophilic head.
Sterol, cholesterol Not dietary essential, used to make other compounds (bile, Vit D, Testosterone and other hormones)
Hydrophilic, hydrophobic Hydrophilic- "loves water" attracted to water Hydrophobic- "hates water" will not mix with water.
Bile, emulsify Bile-emulsifier made in the liver & stored in the gallbladder. Emulsify-promotes the mixing of lipids in a watery substance.
Cholecystokinin Found in the sm. intestine. Signals gallbladder to release bile.
Lipase The enzyme that hydrolizes lipids
Micelle Bits of emulsified fats that arise in digestion. Most contain bile salts and the products of digestion (fatty acids, monoglycerides and cholesterol)
HDL HDL: High Density Lipoproteins, Composed primarily of protein, transport cholesterol from liver
Lymph Similar to blood but contains no red blood cells or platelets. Transports fat and fat-soluable vitamins to blood via the lymphatic vessel.
Adipose Cells Fat tissues where messes of triglyceride-strage cells are held.
Lipoprotein Lipase Enzyme that hydrolizes triglycerides passing in the blood stream and directs parts into cells Where they can be used for energy or stored.
DRI Dietary Reference Intakes- The product which requirements and recomendations have established. EAR->RDA->DRI
Briefly discuss the types of research design used in nutritional studies, giving an example of each. Example 2 No scientific bases are used but rather observations. (AI- Adequate Intake, aquired without establishing an EAR due to a lack of specific funtion that may be measured. It "appears" to be adequate
Red Flags of nutrition information: * Satisfaction guarenteed * Quick and easy fixes * Natural -not legally defined * One product does it all * Personal Testimonials (Could be plasebo effect) * Meaningless medical jargon.
Results of digestion in each group * Carbs- broken into monosaccharies * Fiber- no significant digestion * Lipids- emulsified to sm. molecules *Proteins- Broken into amino acids *Vitamins & Minerals- Absorbed unchanged
Identify the types of absorption for each carbohyrdate. Absorbtion of carbs is done primarily in the small intestines. *Glucose & Galactose are absorbed by ACTIVE TRANSPORT *Fructose is absorbed by FACILITATES DIFFUSION
•Know the two hormones that control glucose levels of the blood and the action of each hormone. (Decreased glucose) *Glucagon- Synthesized by pancreas, released when the blood glucose is low. Glycagon tells liver to break down gycogen to release glucose into the blood.
LDL LDL: Low Density Lipoproteins, Composed of cholesterol, transports lipids to tissues
VLDL VLDL: Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Composed of triglycerides, made by liver, trasport lipids to tissues, Get smaller & more dense as triglyceride portion is removed.
chylomicron Arise in digestion, largest of the liporoteins, least dense, get smaller as triglyceride portion is removed by cells
Created by: 692020196