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# behav sci

### First Aid- Behavioral Sciences

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Case control study | observational and retrospective; compares group with ds to group w/o. Identifies risk factor, "what happened?" Uses Odds Ratio |

Cohort study | observational and prospective: compares group exposed to risk factor to group w/o exposure, "what will happen?" Uses Relative Risk |

Cross sectional study | observational: collects data at a particular point in time "what is happening?" uses disease prevalence |

Clinical trial: Phase 1 | is it safe? asseses toxicity and pharmockinetics |

Clinical trial: Phase 2 | Does it work? (efficacy) assesses optimal dosing, efficacy and adverse effects |

Clinical trial: Phase 3 | Does it work better? compares new tx to current standard of care |

Clinical trial: Phase 4 | Detects long term or rare adverse affects |

Sensitivity | Probability that a person with ds will test + SNOUT= rules in, =TP/TP+FN =1-FN rate |

Specificity | Probability that a person w/o ds will test - SPIN= r/o =TN/TN+FP =1-FP rate |

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) | proportion of postive test results that are TP =TP/TP+FP |

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) | proportion of negative test results that are true negative. =TN/FN+TN |

Prevalence | ~= to incidence x disease duration |

Incidence | = # of new cases |

Odds ratio | For case control studies: odds of having disease in exposed group divided by odds of having ds in unexposed gropu. = ad/bc |

Relative risk | for cohort studies RR= (a/(a+b)) / (c/ (c+d)) |

Attributable risk | Difference in risk between exposed and unexposed. = ( a/(a+b)) - (c/(c+d)) |

Absolute Risk reduction | same as attributable risk, except replacing risk by reduction of risk due to exposure to drug. (same eq. as attributable risk) |

NNT- Number needed to treat | 1/absolute risk reduction |

NNH- number needed to harm | 1/ attributable risk |

Precision | consistency and reproducability of a test |

accuracy | trueness of the test measurements |

Selection bias | non random assignment to study group, may include loss to follow- up includes berkson bias |

Berkson's bias | Using only hospital records as data |

recall bias | knowledge of presence of d/o alters recall by subjects |

sampling bias | subjects are not representative relative to general population; therefore results are not geralizable |

late-look bias | information gathered at an inappropriate time- eg. using a survey to study a fatal disease ( only those patients still alive will be able to answer the survey) |

Procedure bias | subjects in different groups are not treated the same. e.g., more attention is paid to treatment group, stimulating greater compliance |

confounding bias | occurs with 2 closely associated factors; the effect of 1 factor distorts or confuses the effects of another. |

Lead-time bias | early detection confused with increased survival; seen with improved screening (natural history of ds is not changed, but earl detection makes it seem as tho survival increased) |

pygmalian effect | occurs when a researchers belief in the efficacy of a treatment changes the outcome of that treatment |

hawthorne effect | occurs when the group being studied changes its behavior oweing to the knowledge of being studied. |

effect modification | is present when the effect of teh main exposure on teh outcome is modified by the presence of another variable. eg: effect of new estrogen receptor agonist on the incidence of DVT is modified by smoking status) |

Normal Gaussian statistical distribution | mean=median= mode |

bimodal statistical distribution | 2 humps (2 modal peaks) |

positive skew | mean > median > mode asymmetry with tail on the right |

negative skew | mean < median < mode asymmetry with tail on the left |

Null hypothesis (H0) | Usually opposes your hypothesis hypothesis of no difference (eg there is no association b/w the disease and the risk factor in the population). |

alternative hypothesis (H1) | hypothesis that there is some difference (eg there is some association b/w the ds and the risk factor in population) |

Type 1 error (alpha) | study shows something that is not reality states there is an effect when none exists. p= probability of making a type I error. False positive error |

p < .05 | p= probability of making type 1 error, should be less than .05 |

Type II error (beta) | stating that there IS NOT an effect or difference when one does exist. False negative error |

Power (1-beta) | study shows something that's there or doesn't show what's not there |

Percentage of population in 1 SD (standard deviation) | 68% |

Percentage of population in 2 SD | 95.5% |

percentage of population in 3 SD | 99.7% |

Confidence Interval | range of values in which a specified probability of the means of repeated samples would be expected to fall. |

Confidence Interval equation | CI= range from (mean-Z(SEM) to (mean + Z (SEM) |

Z in different Confidence intervals | 95% CI, Z= 1.96 90% CI, Z= 1.645 99% CI, Z= 2.57 |

t-test | checks the difference between the means of 2 groups |

ANOVA | ANOVA checks difference bw 3 OR MORE groups |

chi squared | test checks difference bw 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcome (not mean values) |

correlation coefficient (r) | r is always between -1 and +1. the closer the absolute value of r is to 1, the stronger the correlation between the 2 variables |

Coefficient of determination | r squared, value that is usually reported |

disease prevention | primary- prevent disease occurrence secondary- early detection of ds tertiary- reduce disability from ds (eg chemo) |

Reportable diseases (STD's) | (HIV)/AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea |

Reportable diseases (Heps) | Hep A, B, and (C) |

Reportable diseases (kids) | MMR: measles, mumps, rubella and chicken pox |

Reportable diseases (diarrheals) | Salmonella, Shigella |

Leading cause of death in infants | Congenital anomalies, SIDS, Respiratory distress syndrome |

Leading cause of death ages 1-14 | injuries, cancer, congenital anomalies |

Leading cause of death ages 15-24 | injuries, homicide, suicide |

Leading cause of death ages 25-64 | cancer, heart attack, injuries |

Leading cause of death ages 65+ | heart ds, cancer, stroke |

Medicare | medicarE is for Elderly part A= inpatient care part B= outpatient care part C= combo of A and B pard D= prescription drug coverage |

medicaid | MedicaiD is for the destitute is federal and statehealth assistance for people with very low income |

APGAR score assess what? | assesses health of a newborn at 1 and 5 minutes old Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration |

Low birth weight (defined as) | <2500g |

Low birth weight complications | infections, respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis (due to feeding baby too fast), intraventricular hemorrhage, persistant fetal circulation |