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-Microbiology CH1

Exam 1

In 1668 who demonstrated that maggots appeared only in decaying meat that had been exposed to flies? Francesco Redi
Who introduced the concept that living cells arise from other living cells? Rudolph Virchow
Who introduced the technique of vaccination for smallpox? Edward Jenner
Who first used the microscope and observed "cells" Robert Hooke
Who made an association between slikworm disease and fungus? Agostino Bassi
Who was the surgeon who used carbolic acid to control wound infections? Joseph Lister
Who first speculated about the possibility of a "magic bullet" that would destroy a pathogen without harming the host Paul Ehrlich
Who discovered Penicillin? Alexander Fleming
Who used anthrax as a model, demonstrating that a specific microorganism is the cause of a specific disease? Robert Koch
Who originated our system of scientific nomenclature? Carolus Linnaeus
Who assigned a microbial cause to fermentation Louis Pasteur
Who was the first to crystalize a virus Wendell Stanley
Who showed that mild heating of spirits kills spoilage bacteria without damage to the beverage Louis Pasteur
Who devised a classification system for the streprococci based on an immunological system of serotypes. Rebecca Lancefield
Who demostrated that infections in obstetrical wards could be minimized by disinfecting the hands of doctors Ignaz Semmelweis
Who first demonstrated that genetic information could be exchanged between bacteria by conjugation Joshua Lederberg
Prokaryotes Bacteria
Noncellular, reproduce only inside cells of host organism viruses
Helminths Multicellular animal parasites
Yeasts Fungi
An infectious protein Prion
Unicellular eukaryote microorganisms, members of Kingdom Protista Protozoa
Protection from a disease that is provided by vaccination. Immunity
The use of chemical substances to treat disease Chemotherapy
The use of microbes to clean up, for example oil spills Bioremediation
The process which yeast changes sugars into alcohol Fermentation
Techniques that keep areas free of unwanted microorganisms Aseptic
Photosynthetic bacteria; may fix nitrogen from air Cyanobacteria
Photosynthetic eukaryotes Algae
Eukaryotes classified primarily by their means of locomotion Protozoa
General name for a rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus
General name fora spherical bacterium Coccus
Prokaryotes whose cell walls lack peptidoglycan and are often found in extreme environments Archaea
Bacteria generally reproduce by a process called ___ into two equal daughter cells. binary fission
The set of criteria that prove that a specific microorganism is the cause of a specific disease is known today as ___ ___. Koch Postulates
The concept that living cells can arise only from other living cells is called ___. biogenesis
Responding to experiments in which nutrient fluids were heated in sealed containers, proponents of spontaneous generation objected that heating destroyed some ___ ___ in the air. Vital Force
According to the rules applied to the scientific naming of a biological organism, the ___ name is always capitalized. genus
Paul Ehrlich discovered an arsenic derivative, ___, that was effective against syphilis. salvarsan
Antimicrobial chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi are called ___. antibiotics
Bacteria usually exist in nature not as single cells but as aggregations of cells called a/n ___. biofilm
What are three characteristics unique to prokaryotes -Single, circular chromosome that is not enclosed by a nuclear envelope -Lack true organelles -have peptidoglycan in their cell walls -Binary fission is a common form of reproduction
The ___ which is the first name in a nomenclature is always capitalized, and the ___ ___, which follows and is not capitalized. -genus -specific epithet (species)
___ and ___ are simple, one-celled organisms whose genetic material is not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane. For this reason these are called prokaryotes. Bacteria and archaea
Protozoa are classified by what? locomotion
Created by: 100000187424952