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Endocrine Vocabulary

NUR 122

QuestionAnswer
acromegaly A disorder marked by progressive enlargement of the head, face, hands, and feet, due to excessive secretion of somatotropin; organomegaly and metabolic disorders occur; diabetes mellitus may develop.
agranulocytosis An acute condition characterized by pronounced leukopenia; infected ulcers are likely to develop in the throat, intestinal tract, and other mucous membranes, as well as in the skin. Condition is an immunocompromised state.
aldosterone A hormone produced by the cortex of the suprarenal gland; its major action is to facilitate potassium exchange for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potassium and hydrogen loss; the principal mineralocorticoid.
catecholamines Pyrocatechols with an alkylamine side chain; examples of biochemical interest are epinephrine, norepinephrine, and l-dopa. Catecholamines are major elements in responses to stress.
cortisone A hormone isolated from the cortex of the adrenal gland and also prepared synthetically. It regulates the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, sodium, potassium, and proteins, and is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent.
cretinism Obsolete term for congenital hypothyroidism. SEE ALSO infantile hypothyroidism
Cushing’s syndrome A condition caused by excessive production of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex or pituitary gland and marked by obesity, muscular weakness, hypertension, striated skin, and fatigue.
dwarfism A condition in which the standing height of the subject is below the third percentile.
euthyroid A normal condition of the thyroid gland.
exophthalmos Protrusion of one or both eyeballs; can be congenital and familial, or due to pathology, such as a retroorbital tumor (usually unilateral) or thyroid disease (usually bilateral). SYN proptosis
gigantism A condition of abnormal size or overgrowth of the entire body or of any of its parts. SYN giantism
goiter A chronic enlargement of the thyroid gland, not due to a neoplasm, occurring endemically in some localities, especially regions where glaciation occurred and depleted the soil of iodine, and sporadically elsewhere.
Graves’ disease Toxic goiter characterized by diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, a form of hyperthyroidism; exophthalmos is a common, but not invariable, concomitant finding.
hyperthyroidism A disease caused by excessive levels of thyroid hormone in the body.
hypothyroidism Results in diminished basal metabolism, intolerance to cold, fatigue, mental apathy, physical sluggishness, constipation, muscle aches, dry skin and hair, and coarsening of features.
iodine A nonmetallic chemical element used as a catalyst, reagent, tracer, constituent of radiographic contrast media, therapy in thyroid disease, antidote for alkaloidal poisons, and component of some stains and solutions.
myxedema A disease caused by an underactive or atrophied thyroid gland, characterized by sluggishness and weight gain. It can be treated with artificial thyroid hormone.
tetany Repeated prolonged contraction of muscles, especially of the face and limbs, caused by low blood calcium arising from, e.g. an underactive parathyroid gland or vitamin D deficiency.
thyroxine The principal hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, which stimulates metabolism and is essential for normal growth and development. A synthetic form is used to treat hypothyroidism.
Created by: husseyj