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chapter 1

Developmental Science Field of study devoted to understanding consistency and change throughout the lifespan
theory an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
continuous process of gradually augmenting the same type of skills that where there to begin with
discontinuous process where new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
stages qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development
contexts unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change
nature-nurture controversy disagreement among theorists about whether genetic or environmental factors are more important influences on development
lifespan perspective 4 assumptions 1) lifelong 2)multidimensional and multidirectional 3) highly plastic 4) affected by multiple interacting forces
age graded influences events strongly related to age and fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last
history- graded influence explains why people born around the same time are alike that are different from people born at different times
nonnormative- influences irregular events
psychoanalytic perspective people advance through series of stages where they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations
psychosexual theory emphasizes how parents manage child's sexual and aggressive drives the first few years are curtail for personality development
psychosocial theory Erikson emphasized in addition to meditating between id impulses and superego demands the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills at each stage
Behaviorism directly observable events, stimuli and responses
social learning theory emphasizes modeling also known as imitation or observable learning
Behavioral modification procedures combining conditioning and modeling to limit unwanted behaviors
cognitive developmental theory children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
information processing human mind might also be viewed as a symbol - manipulation system through which information flows
developmental cognitve neuroscience brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
ethology concerned with the adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history
sensitive period optimal time for certain capacities to emerge and where the individual is responsive to environmental influences
evolutionary developmental psychology understands adaptive value of species wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as they change with age
socioculture theory how value, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group is transmitted to next generation
Ecological systems theory views the person as developing with in a complex system of relationships
microsystem innermost level of environment consists of activities and interaction patterns in persons immediate surroundings
mesosystem encompasses connections between microorganism
exosystem social settings that don't contain developing person but affect experiences in immediate surroundings
macrosystem temporal dimensions of Bronfenbernner life changes can be imposed externally or with in person
naturalistic observation go into fields and record behavior of intrest
structured observations investigator sets up lab situation that shows behavior of interest
clinical interview researchers use flexible,conversational style to probe for the participants point of view
structured interviews participant asked some set of questions in same way
clinical or case study method groups wide range of info on one person including observations, interviews, and test scores
ethonography method borrowed from the field of anthropology descriptive, qualitative technique directed towards understanding a culture or a distict social group through participant observation
correlation design researchers gather info on individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, without altering their experiences
correlation coefficient a number that describes how two measures or variables are associated with each other
experimental design permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions
independent variable one that the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable
dependent variable the one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable
random assignment participants to treatment conditions by using an unbiased procedure such as drawing numbers out of a hat or flipping a coin investigators increase the chances that participants characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups
longitudinal design participants are studied repeatedly and changes are noted at they age
cohort effects people born around the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions
cross-sectional design groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time
sequential designs investigators conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies at varying times
Created by: brookevaughan