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MagnesiumQuestions I

Quiz Magnesium Questions Chapter 17 Lewis p. 319

Magnesium is the 2nd most abundant cation in ICF or ECF? ICF
Approximately 50% to 60% of body’s magnesium is contained in? Bone
Magnesium functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of? CHO and protein
Magnesium is also involved in metabolism of? Nucleic acid and proteins
Magnesium is regulated by? GI absorption and renal excretion
Which organs are able to conserve magnesium in times of need and excrete excesses? Kidneys
True or False Factors that regulate calcium balance appear similarly to influence magnesium balance: True such as PTH
Why would manifestations of magnesium imbalance be mistaken for calcium imbalance? Because magnesium imbalance is related to calcium and potassium balance, all three cations should be assessed together.
Name some of the causes of magnesium imbalance Hypomagnesemia (Table 17-10 p 320): 1. Diarrhea 2. Vomiting 3. Chronic alcoholism 4. Impaired GI absorption 5. Malabsorption syndrome 6. Prolonged malnutrition 7. Large urine output 8. NG suction 9. Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus 10. Hyperaldosteronism
Name some of the causes of magnesium imbalance Hypermagnesemia (Table 17-10 p 320): 1.Renal failure (especially if patient is given magnesium products) 2. Excessive administration of magnesium for treatment of eclampsi 3. Adrenal insufficiency
Why is neuromuscular excitability profoundly affected by alterations in serum magnesium level? Because magnesium acts directly on the myoneural junction
How does hyermagnesemia usually occur? Increase in magnesium intake accompanied by renal insufficiency or failure
A patient with what kind of disease should not ingest products containing magnesium such as Maalox and MOM? A patient with chronic kidney disease
Initial clinical manifestations of a mildly elevated serum magnesium concentration include the following: 1. Lethargy 2. Drowsiness 3. Nausea 4. Vomiting
As the level of magnesium increase, describe the clinical manifestations as they become more profound: 1. Deep tendon reflexes are loss 2. Somnolence 3. Respiratory and cardiac arrest
Management of hypermagnesemia should focus on: Prevention
Persons with kidney disease should NOT take: Magnesium containing drugs and must be cautioned to review all over the counter drug labels for magnesium content
What is the emergency treatment of hypermagnesemia? IV administration of calcium chloride or calcium gluconate to physiologically oppose the effects of the magnesium on cardiac muscle.
How will promoting urinary excretion with fluid affect magnesium? It will decrease serum magnesium levels
The patient with impaired renal function will require dialysis. Why? because the kidneys are the major route of excretion for magnesium
What is the major cause of hypomagnesemia? Prolong fasting or starvation
What chronic activity commonly causes hypomagnesemia? Chronic alcoholism as result of insufficient food intake.
How does fluid loss from GI tract contribute to hypomagnesemia? Interferes with Mg2+ absorption
How can prolong parenteral nutrition contribute to hypomagnesemia? Prolong parenteral nutrition without magnesium supplement hypomagnesemia
How do many diuretics affect the level of magnesium? Many diuretics increase the risk of magnesium loss through renal excretion
How does osmotic diuresis affect magnesium levels? Osmotic dieresis caused by high glucose levels in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus increases renal excretion of magnesium
What are the clinical significant manifestations of hypomagnesemia? 1. Confusion 2. Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes 3. Tremors 4. Seizures 5. Predispose to cardiac dysrhythmias
Clinically, hypomagnesemia resembles what other deficiency? Hyopcalcemia and hypomagnesemia may contribute to hypocalcemia as a result of decreased action of PTH.
Explain how hypomagnesemia associated with hypokalemia does not respond well to potassium replacement? This occurs because intracellular magnesium is critical to normal function of the sodium potassium pump
Mild magnesium deficiencies can be treated with: Oral supplements and increased dietary intake of foods high in magnesium
List some food rich in magnesium: 1. Green vegetables 2. Nuts 3. Bananas 4. Oranges 5. Peanut butter 6. Chocolate
Severe magnesium deficiencies can be treated with: Parenteral IV or IM magnesium (Magnesium sulfate). Too rapid administration of magnesium can lead to cardiac or respiratory arrest
Created by: Brainiacs