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The Blood 13

All Of Chapter 13

QuestionAnswer
What brings nutrients and Oxygen to cells and carries away waste? Blood
Blood is classified as what because it consists of cells suspended in an intercellular background material, or matrix? Connective Tissue
Blood differs from other connective tissues in that its cells are not what? Fixed into position, (move freely in plasma, the bloods liquid portion)
Blood is a what fluid? Viscous
Blood varies in color from bright scarlet red to dark red depending on how much of what it is carrying? Oxygen
Blood volume accounts for approximately how much of the total body weight? 8%
The actual quantity of circulating blood differs with a persons what? Size
The average adult male, whom weights 154lbs has about how much blood? 5 liters
What are the 3 ways circulating blood serves the body? Transportation, Regulation, and Protection
Blood is Transported through the body in how many ways and what are they? 4, Gases, Nutrients, Waste, and Hormones.
______ from inhaled air diffuses into the blood through thin membranes in the lungs and is carried by the circulation to all body tissues. Oxygen
_________ ________ is a waste product of cell metabolism. Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide is carried from the tissues to the ______, where it is breathed out. Lungs
The blood transports nutrients and other needed substances such as what to the cells? Electrolytes (salts) & Vitamins
The blood transports the _____ products from the cell to sites where they are removed. Waste
The _______ removes excess water,acid,electrolytes, and urea. Kidney
The ______ removes blood pigments,hormones,and drugs Liver
The lungs eliminate what gas? Carbon Dioxide
The blood carries _________ from their sites of origin to the organs they affect. Hormones
Buffers in the blood help keep the what of body fluids steady at about 7.4? Ph
A measure of a solutions acidity or alkalinity is what? Ph
What is the average pH of blood? 7.4
Blood regulates the amount of _____ in the tissues by means of substances that maintain the proper osmotic pressure. Fluid
The fluid in the tissues is mainly what? Protein
Proper ________ is needed for for fluid balance. Osmotic Pressure
Blood aids in regulation of body temperature by transporting what? Heat
Heat is generated in the ? Muscles
Blood is important in defense against? Disease
Blood carries the ___ & ______ of the immune system that protect against pathogens Cells and Antibodies
The 2 main components of blood are? Plasma & Formed Elements
Formed elements include cells and cell fragments, they fall into how many categories and what are they called? 3 Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets
The name for Red blood cells, which transport Oxygen. Erythrocytes
There are several types of white blood cells, which protect against infection called? Leukocytes
Cell fragments that participate in blood clotting can be called what 2 names? Platelets or Thrombocytes
What percentage of total blood volume is plasma? 55%
Plasma itself is 91% what? Water
The other 9% of plasma is made up of what that is dissolved or suspended in the water? Many different substances
True or False, the Plasma content can vary? True
What substance is maintained at about 0.1% in solution? Glucose
The 2nd largest percentage (8%) that makes up the plasma is ? Protein
The most abundant protein in plasma, maintains the bloods osmotic pressure and is manufactured in the liver. Albumin
Necessary for blood coagulation and manufactured in the liver Clotting factors
These combat infection and are made by certain white blood cells. Antibodies
Consists of a group of enzymes that helps antibodies in their fight against pathogens. Complement
Nutrients, Electrolytes, and other material that must be transported make up how much of the plasma? 1%
The principle carbohydrate found in the plasma is? Glucose
Glucose is stored as? in the liver and skeletal muscles & can be released as needed to supply energy. Glycogen
The products of protein digestion called ? also circulate the plasma Amino Acids
? constitute a small percentage of blood plasma, these include fats, cholesterol and lipoproteins. Lipids
Proteins bound to cholesterol are called? Lipoproteins
Chloride, Carbonate, Phosphate salts of sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium are what in the plasma? Electrolytes
Tiny biconcave disk without nucleus 5 million in number per uL Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
5,000-10,000 larger than red cell with prominent nucleus that may be segmented or unsegmented vary in staining properties. Leukocytes
Carries oxygen bound to hemoglobin and some carbon dioxide and buffers blood Erythrocyte
Protects against pathogens, destroys foreign matter and debris Leukocytes
150,000-450,000 Fragment of large cell (Megakaryocyte) Platelet
Some are active in the immune system located in blood,tissues,and lymphatic system. Leukocyte
Hemostasis; forms a platelet plug and starts blood clotting Platelet
What functions in the formation of bones? Calcium & Phosphorus
Electrolytes in the plasma function in the production of certain hormones such as ? for the production of thyroid hormone. Iodine
What functions in the maintenance of the acid-base balance? Sodium, Potassium, and Phosphate
Vitamins,hormones,waste products,drugs, and dissolved gases primarily oxygen and carbon dioxide are other materials transported in the ? Plasma
All of the bloods formed elements are produced in ? Red bone marrow
Located at the ends of long bones and in the inner mass of all other bones is where formed elements are produced. This is called? Red bone marrow
The ancestors of all the blood cells are called? Hematopoietc stem cells
Cells that have the potential to develop into any of the blood cell types produced within the red bone marrow are called? Hematopoietc stem cells
True or False... Most blood cells are short lived? True
A protein that contains iron, oxygen is bound in the red cells to this? Hemoglobin
Red cell production is stimulated by the hormone ? which is released from the kidney in response to decreased oxygen. Erythropietin
Carry oxygen in the blood is the main function of what? Hemoglobin
Type of white blood cell that Show visible granules in the cytoplasm when stained, distinctive, highly segmented nucleus are called? Granulocyte
Stained with either acidic or basic dyes and show lavender granules, Functions in Phagocytosis Neutrophils
Stain with acidic dyes and have beadlike, bright pink granules, Functions in allergic reactions defense against parasites Eosinophils
Stain with basic dyes and have large, dark blue granules that often obscure the nucleus, Functions in allergic reactions inflammatory reactions Basophils
Most numerous of white cells, constituting approximately __% of all Leukocytes Neutrophils 60%
Neutrophils cells are also called? Polymorphs
when increased in number these staff cells are a sign of infection, and active neutrophil production. Band cells
These two types of cells make up a small percentage of white cells, but increase in number during allergic reactions. Eosinophils and Basophils
Another name for Agranular Leukocytes Agranulocytes
These cells nuclei are round or curved and are not segmented. There are two different types of these white blood cells. Agranulocytes
The second most numerous of the white cells,develop to maturity in lymphoid tissue and can multiply in this tissue as well. They circulate in the lymphatic system and are active in immunity. Lymphocytes
Largest white blood cell. Average about 5% of the leukocytes and function in phagocytosis. Monocytes
These clear the body of foreign material and cellular debris, destroy pathogens that may invade the body. Leukocytes
Engulfing of foreign matter is called ? Phagocytosis
Neutrophils and ? engage in Phagocytosis. Monocytes
A mixture of of dead and living bacteria, living together with dead and living leukocytes, forms... Pus
A collection of pus localized in one area is known as an ? Abscess
Some monocytes enter the tissues, enlarge,and mature into? Macrophages
Highly active in disposing of invaders and foreign material. Macrophages
Most circulating ? live only 6-8 hours, those that enter the tissues may survive for longer periods, days,months and even years. Lymphocytes
Some Lymphocytes become ? active in the production of circulating antibodies needed for immunity. Plasma cells
The ? (thrombocytes) are the smallest of all the formed elements. Blood platelets
These tiny structures are not cells in themselves but rather fragments constantly released from giant bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes. Blood platelets
giant bone marrow cells are called? Megakaryoctes
Platelets contain active enzymes and mitochondria but do not have what two inter-structures? Nuclei and DNA
What are the types of granular leukocytes? Neutrophils,Eosinophils, and Basophils
What are the Agranular Leukocytes? Lymphocytes and Monocytes
The most important function of leukocytes is? To destroy pathogens
The function of ? is blood coagulation. Blood platelets
The process that prevents blood loss from circulation when a blood vessel is ruptured by injury. Hemostasis
?of the smooth muscles in the blood vessel wall which reduces blood flow and loss form the defect in the vessel. Contraction
The reduction of a vessels diameter is? Vasoconstriction
Activated platelets become sticky and adhere to the defect to form a temporary ? Platelet plug
The term for blood clot? Coagulation
What are the 3 steps of Hemostasis? 1.Contraction of smooth muscles and vasoconstriction 2. formation of platelet plug. 3. Formation of a blood clot.
Compounds that promote clotting are known as? Procoagulants
Compounds that prevent clotting are known as? Anticoagulants
When an injury occurs ? is activated and a clot is formed. procoagulants
The clotting process is a well-controlled series of separate events involving ? which are designated by Roman Numerals. 12 different factors
The final step in the 12 different factors is the conversion of plasma protein called? Fibrinogen
The conversion of plasma protein called fibrinogen into solid threads of ? which form the clot. fibrin
Substances released from damaged tissue stimulate the formation of ? prothrombinase
A substance that triggers the final clotting mechanism is called? prothrombianse
Prothrombinase converts prothrombin in the blood to thrombin. what is needed in this step? calcium
? forms a network of threads that entraps plasma and blood cells to form a clot. Fibrin
The fluid that remains after clotting has occured is called? Serum
? contains all of the components of blood plasma except clotting factors. Serum
Excessive bleeding is referred to as? Hemorrhage
The Administration of blood from another person into the veins of a patient is called? Transfusion
When a transfusion takes place and the donors blood ruptures and releases their hemoglobin they are said to be? Hemolyzed
Certain proteins called ? on the surface of red cells cause incompatibility reactions. Antigens
The 2 groups particularly likely to cause a transfusion reaction are the so-called? A and B antigens and the Rh factor
What are the four blood types? A,B,AB,O
What do the blood type letters indicate? Type of antigen present on red blood cells
What is used for testing blood type? Blood Sera
Blood serum containing antibodies that can destroy red blood cells with A antigen are called? Anti-A Serum
Blood serum containing antibodies that can destroy red blood cells with B antigen are called? Anti-B Serum
When combined with a blood sample in the lab, each antiserum causes corresponding red cells to clump together in a process known as? Agglutination
Blood that is your own blood that is stored in a blood bank until you need it is called? Autologous
More than 85% of the US population has another red cell antigen group called? Rh factor
Rh is also known as? D antigen
People that have D antigen/Rh factor are said to be? Rh positive
People that do not have D antigen/Rh factor are said to be? Rh Neggative
When a mothers blood and a fetus blood have opposite Rh Factors it is called? Hemolytic disease of the newborn
A common method for separating the blood plasma from the formed elements is by use of a ? Centrifuge
A machine that spins in a circle at high speed to separate a mixtures components according to density is called? Centrifuge
Blood is removed, desired components are separated and the remainder to returned the donor. this is called? Hemapheresis
If the plasma is removed and the formed elements returned to the donor it is called? Plasmapheresis
Cell free isotonic solutions used to maintain blood fluid volume to prevent circulatory shock. Plasma Expanders
The packaged plasma that is currently avaliable is actually plasma? protein fraction
Further separation yelids serum albumin that is avaliable in solutions of 5% or 25% concentration plasma protein fraction
When frozen plasma is thawed, a white precipitate called ? forms in the bottom of the container. Cryoprecipitate
Plasma frozen when it is less than ? hours old contains all the factors needed for clotting. 6
? is rich is clotting factor VIII and fibrinogen Cryoprecipitate
Blood is commonly separated into its components parts by? Centrifuge
A disorder in which there is an abnormally low level of hemoglobin or red cells in the blood, thus impaired delivery of oxygen to tissues. Anemia
A neoplastic blood disease characterized by an increase in the number of white cells Leukemia
Conditions characterized by an abnormal tendency to bleed because of a breakdown in the bodys clotting mechanism. Clotting disorders
If a person looses as much as 2 liters what usually results? Death
When a person looses an excessive amount of blood sudden and acute or gradual an chronic they may have? Hemorrhagic Anemia
Anemia caused by excessive red cell destruction is called? Hemolytic Anemia
The hemoglobin in many of the red cells is abnormal, they then transform from normal disk shape into sickle shape which is a disease known as? Sickle Cell Anemia
When obstruction occurs there may be severe joint swelling and pain esp in fingers and toes and abdomen pain, this aspect of sickle cell anemia is referred to as? Sickle cell crisis
About 8% of African Americans have one of the genes for the abnormal hemoglobin and are said to have the ? Sickle cell trait
About 1% of African Americans have two of these genes for abnormal hemoglobin and then have? Sickle Cell Disease
This drug reduces the frequency of pain caused by Sickle cell disease? Hydroxyurea
The most common nutritional anemia is? Iron-deficiency anemia
Is characterized by a deficiency of vitamin B12, a substance essential for proper red cell formation
The cause of Pernicious Anemia is a permanent deficiency of ? a gastric juice secretion that is responsible for B12 absorption from the intestine. Intrinsic factor
? Includes a group of hereditary blood deficiency's in which hemoglobin is normal but is not produced in adequate amounts. Thalassemia
Severe Thalassemia is called? Cooley Anemia
A type of bone marrow failure that may be caused by a variety of physical and chemical agents. Aplastic Anemia
The damaged bone marrow fails to produce either red or white cells, so that anemia is accompanied by? Leukopenia
the white cells have 2 main sources red marrow (myeloid tissue) and ? Lymphoid tissue
If white stem cells form cancer of the bone marrow it is called? Myelogenous Leukemia
When cancer arises in the lymphoid tissue, so that most of the abnormal cells are lymphocytes the condition is called? Lymphocytic Leukemia
The cause of Leukemia is? Unknown
A neoplastic disease of blood-forming tissue. Characterized by a enormous increase in the number of white cells which are incompetent and cannot preform their normal jobs. Also crowding out the other blood cells Leukemia
A rare hereditary bleeding disorder, a disease that influenced history by its occurrence in some Russian and Western European royal families. Hemophilia
All forms of Hemophilia are characterized by a deficiency of a specific clotting factor , most commonly? Factor VIII
Hereditary clotting disorder, involves a shortage of von Willebrand factor a plasma component that helps platelets stick to damaged tissue, also carries factor VIII Von Willebrand Disease
Most common clotting disorder is a deficient number of circulating platelets (thrombocytes) Thrombocytopenia
A serious clotting disorder involving excessive coagulation. occurs in cases of damaged tissue caused by massive burns, trauma,certain acute infections, cancer and some disorders of child birth. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
A standard part of a routine physical examination is a CBC or? Complete Blood Count
The volume percentage of red cells in the whole blood Hematocrit
Normal and abnormal types of hemoglobin can be separated and measured by the process? Electrophoresis
42%-54% is the normal range for an adult ? Hematocrit
Normal hemoglobin levels in a man range from 14-17 grams per 100ML blood. normal hemoglobin levels for a woman are 12-15grams per 100ML of blood
15.6g Hb/dL aka 90% is standard hemoglobin level for an adult male
A ruled slide used to count the cells in a given volume of blood under the microscope Hemocytometer
An increase in the red cell count is called? Polycythemia
People who live at high altitudes develop ? Polycythemia
Polycythemia vera is? a disorder of bone marrow
in ? the white count is below 5,000 cells per uL Leukopenia
In ? the white cell count exceeds 10,000 cells per uL Leukocytosis
The normal platelet range is from? 150,000-450,000 per uL of blood (may fall to 100,000 or less without causing serious bleeding problems)
An estimation of the percentage of each white cell type in the smear is called? Differential white count
This machine can run some 20 tests per min Sequential Multiple Analyzer
Increased levels of CK, LDH and other enzymes indicate what? tissue damage
An excess of alkaline phosphatase could indicate a ? disorder or metastatic cancer involving bone liver
Created by: lonelystar884