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ND 8 Science Midterm

ND Beth 8th Grade Science Midterm Flashcards

Mercury (1)(messenger of the gods) closest to the Sun - surface is covered w/ craters - 1 year=1.5 Earth days - 1/3 size of Earth - no atmosphere - no moons - wimpy magnetic field - temp. extremes
Venus (2)(goddess of love and beauty) 2nd from the Sun - "greenhouse effect"= very thick cloud cover trapping heat - hottest planet - orbits closest to Earth - CO2 based atmosphere - sulfuric acid rain - rotates backwards - no moons
Mars (4)(god of war) Red Planet - surface is desert-like - similar axis tilt to Earth - just over 24 hour rotation - polar caps - has seasons - about 1/2 size of Earth - thin atmosphere - 2 moons= Phobos & Demios - has canyons on surface - Olympus Mons
Jupiter (5)(god of the gods) largest planet - "failed star" - gives off more energy than it gets from the Sun - "fake" magnetic field= pressurized H - 1 year=12 Earth years - 16 moons - Great Red Spot= ion storm
Saturn (6)(god of time) 2nd largest planet - dramatic ring system= ice and dust - rings are wide but thin (CD) - 31 moons - Titan= planet's largest moon (larger than Pluto and Mercury) - 1 year= 29 Earth years - ocean= liquid methane and ammonia
Uranus (7)(god of the sky) Twin Planet - about 4x diameter of Earth - mostly H and He - teal color (aquamarine) - 1 day= 16 hours - ring system - strange axis tilt - 21 moons
Neptune (8)(god of the sea) Twin Planet - about 4x diameter of Earth - mostly H and He - bright blue color - 1 day= 18 hours - ring system - Scooter= the dark spot on surface(?) - 8 moons
Pluto (9)(god of the underworld) misfit - demoted to dwarf planet *for now :(* - 3000 km in diameter - believed to be frozen Ne, Ar, Kr - 1 moon=Charon - 1 year = 248 Earth years - extreme elliptical orbit - crosses orbit w/ Neptune - stolen from Kuiper Belt?
core (1) the center of the Sun - site of nuclear fusion
radiation zone (2) thickest layer of the Sun - thightly packed w/ He atoms - heat & light emerge
convection zone (3) energy moves particle to particle toward surface in a convection current
photosphere (4) visible surface of the Sun
chromosphere (5) the "colored sphere" - 1st layer of atmosphere - not visible
corona (6) outermost layer of the Sun's atmosphere - looks like a halo - only seen during eclipse
proton part of an atom with a positive (+) charge
electron part of an atom with a negative (-) charge
neutron part of an atom with a neutral (0) charge
igneous rock a type of rock with crystals (formed by fire)
sedimentary rock a type of rock that has layers
metamorphic rock a type of rock that is changed by heat and pressure
Greeks first people to study solar system - thought Earth was in center, flat, motionless
Aristotle proved Earth was round
Ptolemy made geocentric model= Earth is in center and round - planets in perfectly round orbits
Copernicus made heliocentric model= Sun is in center, Earth is just a planet
Galileo discovered Jupiter's 4 largest moons: Io, Europa, Callisto, Gandymede (largest moon in solar system)
Kepler using Tycho Brahe's data, he proves planets travel in elliptical orbits
Brahe discovered epicycle=an object moving in a circle while being carried in a larger circle
Dalton believed atoms are solid spheres (pool ball)
Thompson believed atoms are solid spheres w/ negative particles inside it (chocolate chips) - discovered electrons
Rutherford discovered the center of the atom contains that most mass= nuclei (peach)
Bohr discovered atoms have positively charged center w/ negative electrons moving in circular orbits (onion)
Rutherford-Bohr Model (Electron Cloud Model) positive nuclei w/ negative electrons buzzing randomly around nuclei
Mendeleev created Periodic table by charting elements known in his time (1800s)
Mosley put table into its modern form
absolute magnitude true brightness of a star, luminosity if all stars were equal distance from Earth
alloy mixture of 2 or more elements with at least 1 metal
apparent magnitude the brightness of a star as it is viewed from earth
asteroid belt band of asteroids in orbit between Mars & Jupiter - over 2500 known
atomic number the number of protons
aurora occurs when solar wind enters Earth's atmosphere and changes into colored lights
black hole an object with gravity so strong not even light can escape - results from imploded neutron star
coma in a comet, outer part of nuclei that slushes w/ heat
comet dirty snowballs
compound two or more elements chemically combined - loses all element properties - definite formula
constellation a group of stars that seem to make a shape or pattern in the sky
dark matter matter that gives off no electromagnetic radiation - makes up 23% of all matter - can be studied by how it reacts to other matter
element a substance that cannot be broken down w/o losing its properties - only 1 kind of atom
ellipse "squished egg"
family a vertical column on the Periodic Table
fracture a mineral that breaks along an irregular surface - different each time
galaxy a group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity
H-R Diagram Hertzsprung Russel - uses color & temp. from a star to gain info on stars - color= result of temp. - temp.= how much energy is given off
inorganic not made from dead things
ion a charged particle
luster how the surface of the mineral reflects light (metallic/non-metallic)
Milky Way our galaxy (Spiral)
Moh's Scale measure of rock hardness (1=softest, 10=hardest)
nebula cloud of dust & gas in space created by a supernova - building blocks of celestial objects
nuclear fusion small mass nuclei unite into larger nuclei
Oort Cloud comet nursery - collection of comet nuclei just past Pluto
ore any mineral mined for profit
organic made from dead things (ooze) - Carbon
Periodic Table a chart of known chemical elements, organized by their properties
quasar "Quasi Stellar Radio Source" - small in size, but massive brightness - discovered in 1960s, most distant and fastest moving objects we know
revolution a planet following an orbit around a star (seasons)
rotation a planet turning on its axis (night/day)
smelting heating the ore to separate ore from junk rock
solar system planets revolving in orbit around a star
solar wind a steady stream of electrically charged particles coming off the Sun
streak true color - the color of the powder created when the mineral is scratched along porcelain
sunspot areas on the Sun that are cooler than surrounding surface - black spots - always in pairs - usually near a solar flare - run on an 11 year cycle
supernova can only happen to large mass stars - unstable fusion causes explosion - creates new nebula - heavy elements are created during explosion
valence electrons the electrons that form the bond - last energy level
Created by: hunoni