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Skoch Chapter 13

Endocrine Unit

How are endocrine and exocrine glands different? Endocrine glands secret into interitial fluid, fluid that surrounds tissue cells while exocrine glands secrete into ducts that carry its product to a body cavity.
What are target cells and receptor sites? Target cells are the specific cell a hormone goes to, the receptor site is what recognizes the specific hormone.
Where are the receptor sites for lipid soluble and water soluble hormones? Lipid soluble receptor sites are found within the target cells, water soluble receptor sites are found on the outside of the target cells.
In what three ways are hormone secretions controlled? 1.Signals from the nervous system 2. Chemical changes in the blood 3. Chemical changes in other hormones
What are hGh and IGF, what are their function? hGh(human growth hormone) -promotes synthesis and secretion of small protein hormones called IGFs. IGF(insulinlike growth factors) -stimulates protein synethesis, helps maintain muscle and bone mass, and promotes healing of innjuries and tissue repair.
What are GHRH and GHIH, what are their functions? GHRH(growth hormone-realesing hormone) -hypothalamien that controls secretion of hGh, blood glucose below levels. GHIH(growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) -hypothalamien that controls secretion of hGh, blood glucose above levels.
What are TSH and TRH, what are their functions? TSH(thyroid stimulating hormone) -stimulates the synthesis and secretion of theyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. TRH(thyrotropin-releasing hormone) -controls TSH secretion.
What are FSH, LH, and GnRH, what are their functions? FSH(folicle stimulating hormone) -developes ovarian follicles -stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogens(LH) -stimulates sperm production LH(lutenizing hormone) -triggers ovulation GnRH(gonadotropin-releasing hormone) - realse of FSH and LH
What are PRL, PIH, and PRH, what are their functions? PRL(prolactin)-initiates and maintains milk prouction in mammary glands. PIH(prolactin-inhibiting hormone) -suppresses the release of prolactin most of the time. PRH(prolactin-releasing hormone) -stimulates release of prolactin.
What is oxytocin and its function? 1. enhances contraction of smooth muscle cells int he wall of the uterus during dilivery. 2. stimulates milk ejection after dilivery.
What is ADH and its function? ADH(antidiuretic hormone) -decreases urine production -causes kidneys to retain more water -decreases water loss through sweating
What are T3 and T4, what are their functions? T3(thyroxine) T4(triiodothyronine) -increases basal metabolic rate(BMR)
What is glucagon and its function? Glucagon(hormone) -increases blood glucose levels when they fall below normal, also causes ATP prouction.
What is insulin and its function? Insulin(hormone) -helps glucose move into cells, especially muscle fibers.
What is cortisol and its function? Cortisol(most abundant glucocorticoid) -breaksdown protein -forms glucose -breaksdown triglycerides -has anti-inflammatory effects
What are epinepherine and norepinephrine, what are their functions? Epinepherine and noreponepherine(two main hormones of the adrenal medullae) -fight or flight respones -increase pumping out-put of the heart -increases blood pressure -increases blood flow to some areas
What are estrogen and progesterone, what are their functions? Estrogen and progesterone(female sex hormone) -regulates menstral cycle -maintains pregnancy -prepares mammary glands for lactation
What causes Cushings disease and what are its symptoms? This is caused by hypersecretion of cortisol, the symptoms are spindly arms and legs, rounded "moon face", "buffalo hump" on the back, and a hanging abdomen.
What causes Addisons disease and what are its symptoms? This is caused by hyposecretion of glucocoricoids and aldosterone, the symptoms are mental lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, hypoglycemis, and muscular weakness.
What causes Typer1 diabetes and what are its symptoms? This is caused by low insulin leves fur to the immune system hestroying pancreatic beta cells, the symptoms are increasing thirst, frequent urnination, hunger, weight loss, fatique, and blurred vision.
What causes Type2 diabetes and what are its symptoms? This is caused by high glucose levels in the blood, the symptoms are increased thirst and hunger, dry mouth, frequent urination, weight loss, fatique, blurred vision, and headaches.
What causes Hyperinsulism and what are its symptoms? This is caused when a diabetic injects too much insulin, the symptoms are hypoglycemia, mantal disorientation, convulsions, unconsiousness, and shock.
lact(o) prefix meaning milk
acromegaly enlarged and distorted extremities of the face
acidosis accumulation of acids in the blood (symp of diabetes)
anorexia loss of appetite
cachexia state of malnutrition, wasting
diaphoresis excessive sweating
emaciation extremely thin, wasting
gangrene death of tissue secondary to low oxygen levels
hypophysectomy removal of the pituitary glands
neuropathy disease of nerves, common with diabetes
Created by: danielle.skoch