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Japanese articles (wa, o) in hiragana and romaji, and their meaning with example

Subject One performing the action
Topic The thing being spoken of
Direct object Takes the action of the verb
Indirect object Object indirectly affected by verb
Which is the direct and indirect object?: He hit the ball to Sam. Direct: The ball Indirect: Sam
Verb Action
Japanese subject/verb/object word order subject/object/verb OR object/subject/verb
Japanized word order: I ate sushi. I sushi ate. OR Sushi I ate.
(ga)Subject Marker
(o) Direct object marker
(wa) Topic Marker
(ni) Marks direction, time, indirect object
(e) Marks direction of the action
から (kara) From: Marks starting point of an action
まで (made) Until: Marks ending point of an action
(de) In, by, with, at: location, manner, or background conditions of the action
(no) 'S: Possessive or modifier
(to) And, with: listing items or specifying object with same status as the subject
(ka) Or: lists choices
Example: Jon _ kita. (John came.)
Example: Mari が Jon _ sasotta. (Mary invited John.)
Example: Konnichi _. (Hello.)
Example: Nihon _ itta. (I went to Japan.)
Example: Tokyo _ itta. (I went to/towards Tokyo.)
Example: Ku-ji _ benkyoshita. (I studied from 9 o'clock.) から
Example: San-ji _ benkyoshita. (I studied until 3 o'clock.) まで
Example: Bosuton _ benkyoshita. (I studied in Boston.)
Example: Mari _ hon. (Mari's book.)
Example: Sushi _ sashimi を tabeta. (I ate sushi and sashimi.)
Example: Sushi _ sashimi を taberu. (I will eat sushi or sashimi.)
Example: San-ji _ tsuita. (I arrived at 3 o'clock.)
Example: Takushi _itta. (I went there by taxi.)
Jon が Mari _ utatta. (John sang with Mary.)
Foku _ tabeta. (I ate with a fork.)
Created by: camzy1231



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