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Gen Path 1

Made Ridiculously Simple

Reversible cell injury Cell swelling, fatty change, plasma membrane blebbing, mitochondrial swelling.
Irreversible cell injury Necrosis, apoptosis.
Types of Necrosis coagulation necrosis, liquefactive necrosis (brain), caseous necrosis (TB).
Adaptation to chronic injury or stimuli atrophy, hypertrophy, dysplasia, squamous metaplasia, hyperplasia.
Primary intention edges are surgically attached; may lead to wound contraction.
Secondary intention wound edges are not attached; formation of granulation tissue. Takes longer to heal.
24 hours post injury scab (fibrin clot), mitotic epithelium, neutrophils
48 hours post injury macrophages, fibroblasts, budding new vessel.
72 hours post injury regenerating epithelium, new vessels.
1 week post injury repaired epithelium
2 weeks post injury dense, thick collagen fibers; diminishing vascularity and inflammation.
Mediators of fever IL-1, prostaglandins
Mediators of vasodilation nitric oxide, prostaglandins
Mediators of exudation histamine, bradykinin
Mediators of chemotaxis Complement C5a, IL-8
Mediators of Phagocytosis (opsonization) Complement C3b (opsonin)
Mediators of pain prostaglandins, bradykinin
IL-1 activated by macrophages (APCs); leads to activation of T lymphocytes (CD4).
IL-2 activated by CD4 Th cells. Leads to activation of natural killer cells and B cells. MUTATION in IL-2 is the cause of severe combined immune deficiency.
INF-y activated by CD4 Th cells. leads to activation of macrophages.
IL-2, 4, and 5 activated by T cells; leads to growth and differentiation of lymphocytes.
IL-6 activated by monocytes; leads to growth and differentiation of lymphocytes.
IL-8 activated by monocytes; leads to chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils.
a-Interferon produced by leukocytes; is an antiviral and induces MHC-1 expression.
B-interferon produced by fibroblasts; is an antiviral and induces MHC-1 expression.
y-interferon produced by T cells; activates macrophages and induces MHC-2 expression on macrophages.
TNF-a produced by macrophages; acts like IL-1 (leading to fever).
PDGF produced by platelets and endothelial cells; leads to proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
complement enzymatic proteins that form a cascade directed at cleavage of C3. common final pathway leads to formation of membrane attack complex (MAC).
Classical pathway triggered by Ag-Ab complex. C1:C2 --> C2a+C2b. C4 --> C4a+C4b. C4bC2a (convertase) --> C3b (opsonin) --> C56789 (MAC)
Alternative Pathways by contact w/microbial surfaces. Properdin + D:C3 --> C3a+C3b. B-->Ba+Bb ==> C3bBb (alternate convertase) --> C3 --> C3b (opsonin) --> C56789 (MAC).
C3a Chemotactic; Anaphylotoxic
C5a chemotactic; Anaphylotoxic.
Rheumatoid arthritis anti-IgG (rheumatoid factor)
Systemic Lupus anti-nuclear Abs (ANA)
Drug induced lupus anti-histone
CREST anti-centromere
Myasthenia gravis anti-ACh receptor
Graves' Dz Anti-TSH receptor
Hasimoto's thyroiditis anti-microsomal
Wegener's Granulomatosis Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm (ANCA)
Primary biliary cirrhosis anti-mitochnodrial
Celiac Sprue Anti-gliadein
Goodpasture's Syndrome anti-glomerular basement membrane
amyloid amorphous, eosinophilic extracellular substance. forms aggregates in B-pleated sheets.
Congo Red Stain green birefringence underpolarizing microscope. this distinguishes amyloid from other hyaline deposits i.e. collagen and fibrin.
Amyloid light chains (AL) multiple myeloma
Amyloid associated protein (AA) chronic inflammation and aging
Beta amyloid (AB) Alzheimer's Dz
Type 1 Hypersensitivity IgE. Mast cells and basophils --> Histamine. Sxs: uritcaria, erythema, bronchioles constrict, laryngeal edema, shock, death. Ex: anaphylaxis, astham, hay fever, eczema.
Type 2 Hypersensitivity IgG, IgM. Abs bind to cell surface and activate complement. Sxs: hemolysis. Ex: transfusion rxn, drug rxns, erythroblastosis fetalis, autoimmune dz.
Type 3 Hypersensitivity IgM, IgG. Immune complexes get deposited and activate complement. Sxs: uricaria, lymphadenopahty, arthritis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis. Ex: serum sickness, arthus rxn.
Type 4 Hypersensitivity T cells (memory cells) activate macrophages and killer cells. Sxs: erythema w/induration. Ex: TB rxn, "delayed hypersensitivity".
c-myc oncogene produces transcription factor. ==> Burkitt lymphoma
c-abl oncogene produces tyrosine kinase ==> CML
bcl-2 oncogene inhibits apoptosis ==> Non-hodgkins lymphoma.
ras oncogene produces G protein ==> colon carcinoma.
RB1 tumor suppressor gene retinoblastoma
BRCA-1 tumor suppressor gene breast cancer; ovarian cancer
p53 tumor suppressor gene breast carinoma, colon carcinoma, bronchial carcinomas.
tumor markers used as follow-up after tx to detect metastases, but NOT for screening an asymptomatic population.
CEA tumor marker for adenocarcinomas (colon, pancreas, lung).
alpha-fetoprotein tumor marker for hepatoma, twin pregnancy, anencephalus.
PSA tumor marker for prostate carcinoma; more sensitive than acid phsophatase
acid phosphatase tumor marker for prostate cancer
alkaline phosphatase tumor marker for metastases to bones, obstructive viliary dz, Paget's dz.
Autosomal Recessive Dzs cystic fibrosis; phenylketonuria; albinism; a1-antitrypsin deficiency; thalassemias, sickle cell anemias; glycogen storage dzs; mucopolysaccharidoses; sphingolipidoses; polycystic kidney dz; hemochromatosis; chediak-higashi syndrome
Autosomal dominant Dzs familial hypercholesterolemia; familial polyposis; spherocytosis; von willebrand dz; ehlers danlos syndrome; marfan syndrome; achondroplasia; phacomatoses; huntington's dz; polycystic kidney dz
x-linked recessive dzs hemophilia A and B; glucose-6-phosphate deficiency; fragile x; fabry dz; lesch-nyhan syndrome; duchenne muscular dystrophy; becker muscular dystrophy; bruton's agammaglobulinemia; wiskott-aldrich syndrome; chronic granulomatous dz.
Turner Syndrome 45, XO. broad "shield" chest and widely spaced nipples, webbed neck, short stature, immature genitalia w/lack of menstruation. aortic coarctation. "streak" ovaries.
Klinefelter syndrome 47, XXY. lack of facial hair; high voice; gynecomastia; hypognonadism, lack of pubic hair, infertility; tall stature.
partial deletion of 5p cri du chat syndrome (infant cries like a cat).
partial deletion of 11p congenital absence of iris
partial deletion of 13q retinoblastoma
Prade Willi Syndrome 15q11-13 deletion (PATERNAL chromosome) --> severe infantile hypotony, obesity, mental retardation.
Angelman Syndrome 15q11-13 deletion (MATERNAL chromosome) --> "happy puppet" syndrome, happy smile, wide based gait, epilepsy.
HLA-A3 hemochromatosis
HLA-B27 ankylosing spondylitis; Reiter's Syndrome; ulcerative colitis.
HLA-DR2 multiple sclerosis; narcolepsy
HLA-DR4, Dw4, Dw14 rheumatoid arthritis; juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Created by: celaschiac



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