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Reproduction

Anatomy & Physiology: Reproduction

QuestionAnswer
When does meiosis begin in females and males? 1. females - occurs only during embryonic development, not after birth 2. males - begins in puberty and continues throughout life
1. What is a chromatid? 2. Where are two chromatids held together? one of two identical copies of DNA held together at the centromere
Before the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair with each other. They consists of __ number of chromatids. four
1. Which stage of spermatogenesis divides in number of chromosomes? 2. Which stage of spermatogenesis multiplies in number of chromosomes? 1. primary to secondary spermatocyte 2. spermatogonium multiplies the number of chromosomes to form primary spermatocytes
Process by which spermatids undergo morphological differentiation to form spermatozoa spermiogenesis
Where in the male reproductive tract do spermatozoa undergo maturation and acquire their potential for motility and fertilization epididymis
1. What is capacitation? 2. How does it occur? 1. acquisition of fertilizing capabilities by the sperm 2. extracellular glycoproteins are removed from the sperm in the female reproductive tract. Necessary binding sites are exposed
In fetal development, primordial germ cells migrate from the __ into primitive gonads. yolk sac
Pathway of development in oogenesis: 1. oogonia 2. primary oocytes 3. secondary oocytes 4. ovum
1. What phase of oogenesis are female germ cells arrested in at birth? 2. What phase of meiosis are these cells in? 3. When do they continue meiosis? 1. primary oocytes 2. prophase I 3. ovulation (LH surge)
1. Ovulated secondary occytes are arrested in which phase of meiosis until fertilization? 2. crossing over occurs in which stage? 1. metaphase II 2. prophase I
testosterone circulates the blood bound to which two proteins? albumin and sex hormone binding globulin
Which enzyme converts testosterone into DHT? 5α reductase
In utero: 1. Which enzyme is involved in forming male external genitalia? 2. Which enzyme is involved in forming male internal genitalia? 1. DHT 2. testosterone
1. What hormone causes mullerian duct regression? 2. What produces this hormone? 1. antimullerian hormone 2. Sertoli cells
1. What hormone causes the Wolffian ducts to differentiate? 2. LH and FSH act through which second messenger? 1. testosterone 2. cAMP
Which gland contributes the majority of volume to semen? seminal vesicles
1. Polysaccharide coat that forms around the oocyte. 2. Which hormone stimulates early follicle growth? 1. zona pellucida 2. FSH
Process by which granules release enzymes making the zona pellucida impermeable to more spermatozoa cortical reaction
Which enzymes are stimulated by the following hormones: 1. FSH 2. LH 1. aromatase (converts testosterone to estrogen) 2. desmolase (converts cholesterol to pregnenolone)
What are the two phases of the: 1. Ovarian cycle 2. Endometrial cycle 1. (A) follicular & (B) luteal 2. (A) proliferative & (B) secretory A's and B's occur at the same time but names correspond to different tissues
The suckling stimulus promotes the secretion of what two hormones? What is the purpose of each hormone? 1. oxytocin - milk ejection 2. prolactin - milk secretion
What is the estrogen/progesterone ratio at: 1. follicular phase 2. midcycle 3. luteal phase 4. before parturition 1. ↑ 2. ↑ 3. ↓ 4. ↑
What is the function of human chorionic gonadotropin? causes estrogen and progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum during the first trimester of pregnancy to maintain the endometrium *remember HCG has the same β subunit as LH and functions similarly
How does estrogen effect: 1. HDL 2. LDL 3. bone formation 4. prolactin 1. increases 2. decreases 3. inhibits bone resorption 4. increase secretion but blocks action on breast
1. Why can't the placenta form estrogens from cholesterol? 2. Which metabolite does it use to create estrogens instead? 1. the placenta does not possess the 17αhydroxylase enzyme 2. DHEA-sulfate is desulfated to DHEA and converted to estrogen
Which hormone is responsible for: 1. endometrial proliferation 2. spiral artery development 3. endometrial gland secretion 1. estrogen 2. progesterone 3. progesterone
1. Two androgens of the andrenal cortex 2. Androgen of the ovaries 1. androstenedione, DHEA 2. testosterone
Which hormones are synthesized by the syncytiotrophoblast β-hcG and Human Placental Lactogen (HPL)
What are the two stimuli for oxytocin secretion? suckling and dilation of the cervix
Glands on each side of vaginal canal that produce mucus-like fluid. Bartholin glands
How do the following drain into the IVC: 1. left ovary/testis 2. right ovary/testis 1. pampiniform plexus → left gonadal vein → left renal vein → IVC 2. pampiniform plexus → right gonadal vein → right renal vein → IVC
Which ligaments connect: 1. ovary to the lateral pelvic wall 2. cervix to the side of the pelvis 3. uterine fundus to labia majora 4. uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries to pelvic side wall 5. ovary to lateral uterus 1. suspensory ligament of the ovary 2. cardinal ligament 3. round ligament of the uterus 4. broad ligament 5. ligament of the ovary
Which ligament contains: 1. ovarian vessels 2. uterine vessels 1. suspensory ligament of the ovaries 2. cardinal ligament
What is the epithelium in: 1. vagina 2. ovary 3. ectocervix 4. endocervix 5. fallopian tube 6. uterus 1. simple squamous 2. simple cuboidal 3. simple squamous 4. simple columnar 5. simple columnar, ciliated 6. simple columnar, pseudostratified
Pathway of sperm ejaculation SEVEN UP 1. seminiferous tubules 2. epididymus 3. vas deferens 4. ejaculatory duct 5. (nothing) 6. urethra 7. penis
Which nervous system component is responsible for: 1. erection 2. emission 3. ejaculation 1. parasympathetic nervous system 2. sympathetic nervous system 3. somatic nervous system
What purpose do the following hormones serve in males: 1. LH 2. FSH 1. stimulates synthesis and secretion of testosterone 2. promotes sperm maturation
Which cells the following hormones act upon in the testes: 1. LH 2. FSH 1. Leydig 2. Sertoli
Which cells the following hormones act upon in the ovary: 1. LH 2. FSH 1. Theca 2. Granulosa
What hormonal change initiates puberty? pulsatile GnRH from hypothalamus
1. protein that sequesters testosterone in the seminiferous tubules 2. What initiates producion of this protein? 1. androgen binding globulin 2. FSH action on sertoli cells
Which hormones feedback to inhibit LH and FSH release from the anterior pituitary? 1. testosterone from Leydig cells feeds back to inhibit LH 2. inhibin from sertoli cells feeds back to inhibit FSH
Pathway of spermatogenesis 1. Spermatogonia 2. Primary spermatocytes 3. Secondary spermatocytes 4. Spermatid
Which hormone is responsible for the following in males: 1. early development of the penis and scrotum 2. puberty 3. prostate growth 4. early development of internal genitalia 5. balding 6. closure of growth plates 1. DHT 2. testosterone 3. DHT 4. testosterone 5. DHT 6. estrogen
Where is estrogen secreted during: 1. follicular phase 2. luteal phase 3. first trimester 4. second and third trimester 1. thecal cells 2. corpus luteum 3. corpus luteum (from stimulation by hCG) 4. cooperation between fetal adrenal gland and placenta
1. Why is menopause characterized by a decrease in estrogen? 2. What is the best laboratory test to confirm menopause? 1. the number of ovarian follicles declines with age 2. ↑↑ FSH from the loss of negative feedback of estrogen
Nerve that innervates the perineum and genitals pudental
At the time of the LH surge, what phase of meiosis is the oocyte in? secondary oocyte, arrested in metaphase II
Which lymph nodes do the following drain into: 1. ovaries/testes 2. distal vagina 3. proximal vagina/uterus 1. para-aortic 2. superficial inguinal 3. obturator, iliac and hypogastric
The acrosome of the sperm is derived from which cell component? golgi apparatus
Where is progesterone produced during: 1. first trimester 2. second trimester 1. corpus luteum (stimulated by hCG) 2. placenta
Created by: amichael87