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Endocrinology

Anatomy & Physiology: Endocrine

QuestionAnswer
1. Which cells produce T3 and T4. 2. Which cells produce calcitonin. 3. Which cells secrete parathyroid hormone? 1. Follicular cells of the thyroid 2. Parafollicular (C cells) of the thyroid 3. Chief cells of the parathyroid
What are the 3 thyroid binding proteins? 1. thyroid binding globulin 2. Transthyretin (prealbumin) 3. Albumin
Low total T₄ but normal TSH and free T₄ usually signifies... deficiency in TH-binding proteins
Folicular cells secrete __ into the colloid space. Iodine is added to __ amino acid residues. 1. thyroglobulin 2. tyrosine
1. Enzyme that adds iodine to thyroglobulin 2. Peripheral tissues contain __ that convert T₄ into T₃ by removing iodine from tyrosine residues. 1. thyroid peroxidase 2. Deiodinases
1. How does estrogen effect thyroid binding globulin? 2. How does this effect bound T₄, free T₄, and total T₄? 1. estrogen increases TBG synthesis 2. T4 temporarily decreases as more in bound to TBG. TSH levels increase until T₄ returns to equilibrium. Bound T₄ will be elevated above normal as will total T₄ but free T₄ will not be elevated.
1. A preprohormone is synthesized in the __. 2. After cleavage of signal peptides, the prohormone is transported to the __. 1. rough endoplasmic reticulum 2. golgi
1. Thyroglobulin is released into the colloid space through the process of ___. 2. Iodide is transported into the follicular cell by __. 1. exocytosis 2. sodium-iodide symporter NIS
Function of vitamin D 1. ↑ gut absorption of dietary Calcium & phosphate 2. ↑ bone resorption of calcium
In vitamin D metabolism which metabolite is produced in the liver? Which is produced in the kidney? 1. 25OH vitamin D in liver 2. 1,25(OH)₂ vitamin D in the kidney
Function of calcitonin ↓ bone resorption of calcium
Which endorine hormones act through receptor associated tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT) pathway? GH, prolactin
Which enzyme is responsible for the second hydroxylation of vitamin D in the kidney? 1α-hydroxylase
1. What effect do sex steroid hormones have on bone? 2. What effect do glucocorticoids have on bone? 1. ↓ bone resorption 2. bone resorption
1. GH stimulates the production of IGF1 mainly in the __. 2. What negatively feeds back to inhibit GH release? 1. liver 2. GH and IGF1
What are the effects of GH on blood sugar in the: 1. acute phase 2. chronic phase 1. proinsulin - stimulates glucose and amino acid transport 2. anti-insulin - increased blood glucose, insulin resistance
What is the effect of the following hormones on growth? 1. thyroid hormone 2. glucocorticoids 3. sex steroids 4. insulin 1. ↑ growth 2. inhibit growth 3. ↑ growth but closes epiphyseal plate 4. ↑ growth of fetus
1. Primary hypoadrenalism is usually due to.. 2. Secondary hypoadrenalism is due to. 1. decreased cortisol from autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex 2. decreased cortisol from ACTH deficiency
What is the cause of hyperpigmentation in primary adrenal insufficiency? excess MSH and ACTH production from POMC precursor
1. Which endocrine hormones are derivatives of tyrosine? 2. Carrier proteins that transport posterior pituitary hormones in circulation 1. thyroid hormones 2. neurophysins
What part of the adrenal cortex are the following secreted 1. aldosterone 2. cortisol 3. androgens GFR 1. glomerulosa 2. fasciculata 3. reticularis
1. Where is ADH synthesized? 2. Where is oxytocin synthesized? 1. supraoptic nucleus 2. paraventricular nucleus
What increases growth hormone secretion? 1. sleep 2. stress 3. arginine (high protein meal) 4. hypoglycemia
What are the two hormones that decrease growth hormone release? 1. somatostatin 2. somatomedins (IGF)
Where are somatomedins produced? the somatomedin IGF is produced in the liver after growth hormone binding
Which hormone is produced by the following pancreatic cell types: 1. α 2. β 3. δ 1. insulin 2. glucagon 3. somatostatin
Where are the following glucose transporters located: 1. GLUT1 2. GLUT2 3. GLUT4 1. RBCs, brain 2. β islet, liver, small intestine 3. (insulin responsive) adipose tissue, muscle,
Which enzymes does insulin stimulate for: 1. glycolysis 2. liver synthesis of fatty acids 3. release of fatty acids from VLDL 4. storage of glucose as glycogen 1. glucokinase, PFK-2, PDH 2. acetyl CoA carboxylase 3. lipoprotein lipase 4. glycogen synthase
How does glucose trigger insulin release? 1. glucose enters liver cells through GLUT-2 transporter and undergoes glycolysis 2. ATP ↑ in cell and K + channels close 3. cell depolarizes and calcium channels open 4. Exocytosis of insulin
How does glucagon affect: 1. blood glucose 2. fatty acid level 3. urea production 1. ↑ glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis 2. ↑ lipolysis 3. amino acids used for gluconeogenesis and resulting amino groups incorporated into urea
1. Inhibits prolactin release 2. Hormones that increases prolactin release 3. Which hormone does prolactin inhibit 1. dopamine 2. TRH, estrogen 3. GnRH
1. How does cortisol increase blood pressure? 2. How does PTH effect phosphate? 1. upregulates α1 receptors on arterioles 2. ↓ kidney reabsorption of phosphate
What 3 ways does PTH increase calcium? 1. ↑ bone resorption 2. ↑ kidney reabsorption 3. ↑ vitamin D production → ↑ GI absorption
What is the mechanism of vitamin D activation by PTH? PTH stimulates kidney 1α-hydroxylase
What is the mechanism of bone resorption by PTH? PTH ↑ production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and RANK-L in osteoblasts which stimulate osteoclasts
1. How does PTH effect calcium and phosphate 2. How does vitamin D effect calcium and phosphate? 1. ↑ calcium reabsorption, ↓ phosphate reabsorption 2. ↑ both calcium and phosphate reabsorption
Which endocrine hormones act through IP₃ (Gαq)? GOAT 1. GnRH 2. Oxytocin 3. ADH (V1 receptor) 4. TRH
Which hormone binds a nuclear steroid receptor? T₃/T₄
Which hormones bind cytosolic steroid receptors? VET CAP 1. vitamin D 2. estrogen 3. testosterone 4. cortisol 5. aldosterone 6. progesterone
Hormones that act through cAMP FLAT CHAMP 1. FSH 2. LH 3. ACTH 4. TSH 5. CRH 6. hCG 7. ADH (V2 receptor) 8. MSH 9. PTH
Hormones that act through intrinsic tyrosine kinase (MAP kinase pathway) insulin, IGF1, PDGF
By which mechanism do thyroid hormones effect: 1. cardiac output 2. basal metabolic rate 1. ↑ β1 receptors in hear 2. ↑ Na+/K+ ATPase activity
1. What is calcitriol? 2. How many phosphate groups are attached to it? 1. hormonally active vitamin D 2. 3 hydroxyl groups
What 3 components compose serum calcium? 1. albumin bound calcium 2. phosphorus bound calcium 3. free, ionized calcium
What is the physiological cause of tetany seen with hypocalcemia? lower threshold potential of nerve causes partial depolarization
How does glucagon effect insulin levels? 1. glucagon promotes release of somatostatin → ↓ insulin (and glucagon) secretion 2. glucagon binds pancreatic β-cell → ↑cAMP → insulin secretion
How does insulin effect glucagon levels? insulin directly inhibits glucagon release
Why is insulin levels higher after oral glucose than IV glucose? incretins (e.g. GLP-1) are released from the intestines following oral glucose and they stimulate β-cell insulin secretion
How does insulin deficiency lead to an increase in ketones? without insulin, lipolysis is increased producing increased ketoacids
Why does growth hormone excess lead to hyperglycemia? Growth hormone actions: 1. ↑ gluconeogenesis 2. ↓ glucose uptake into insulin sensitive tissues
1. The activity of which adrenal enzyme is increased by ACTH? 2. The activity of which adrenal enzyme is increased by angiotensin II? 1. Desmolase (converts cholesterol to pregnenolone) 2. Aldosterone synthase
Why does ↑ GH lead to gigantism while ↑ adrenal androgens do not when both promote bone growth? androgens aromatized to estrogens which lead to premature epiphyseal plate closure leading to short stature while GH → ↑ IGF which does not
How do anabolic steroids effect total T4, free T4 and TSH levels? anabolic steroids divert poteins (plasma proteins) into building muscle. thyroid binding globulin is low 1. ↓ total T4 2. normal free T4 3. normal TSH
Drainage of the: 1. Left adrenal 2. Right adrenal 1. left adrenal → left adrenal vein → left renal vein → IVC 2. right adrenal → right adrenal vein → IVC
Embryologic origin of: 1. adrenal cortex 2. adrenal medulla 3. posterior pituitary 4. anterior pituitary 1. mesoderm 2. neural crest 3. neuroectoderm 4. oral ectoderm (Rathke's pouch)
Which hormones share a common α subunit to LH? TSH, LH, FSH, hCG
1. What causes somatostatin secretion from the hypothalamus? 2. Common cause of death from acromegaly or gigantism? 1. somatomedin (IGF) from liver as a feedback mechanism for Growth Hormone regulation 2. cardiomegaly; GH causes IGF release from liver, IGF increases organ size
How does pulsative GnRH vs non-pulsatile GnRH effect pituitary secretion of LH and FSH? 1. pulsatile stimulates pituitary secretion 2. nonpulsatile inhibits secretions
Which hormone: 1. ↑ breast milk production 2. ejection of milk from breast 1. prolactin 2. oxytocin
T4 vs T3 1. longer half life 2. created in peripheral tissues 3. negative feedback on TRH 1. T4 2. T3 3. T3
1. Number one cause of cushing syndrome 2. What is cushing's disease 3. What is the most likely cause of ectopic ACTH secretion? 1. exogeneous steroids 2. ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma 3. small-cell lung cancer
How is epinephrine level effected by cortisol? cortisol sytimulates the enzyme PNMT which converts norepinephrine to epinephrine leading to increase epi levels
How do thyroid hormones effect: 1. protein synthesis 2. lipid store levels 3. cholesterol levels 4. plasma glucose levels 1. ↑ 2. ↓ through lipolysis 3. ↓ through lipolysis 4. ↑ through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
1. How do sleep, stress and glucose levels effect GH secretion? 2. Which amino acid increased GH secretion? 1. sleep, stress and hypoglycemia ↑ GH secretion 2. Arginine
How does cortisol effect: 1. Blood pressure 2. Bone 3. immune function 4. Glucose levels 1. maintains blood pressure 2. ↓ bone formation 3. ↓ immune function 4. ↑ gluconeogenesis and lipolysis
PTH vs vitamin D in calcium increase: 1. acts on gut 2. acts on bone 3. acts on kidney 1. vitamin D 2. PTH 3. PTH
Created by: amichael87