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Embryology

QuestionAnswer
1. What portion of the nervous system does the neural tube form? 2. What portion of the nervous system do the neural crest cells form? 1. CNS, lower motor neurons, preganglionic neurons 2. sensory and postganglionic neurons
Neurulation begins in week __ of development. week 3
What is the function of the notochord? induces the overlying ectoderm to form the neural plate (neural plate then gives rise to the neural tube and neural crest cells)
Divides the neural tube into a ventral and dorsal area? sulcus limitans
Neural tissue of the 1. telencephalon 2. diencephalon 3. mesencephalon 4. metencephalon 5. myelencephalon 1. cerebral hemispheres 2. thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary 3. midbrain 4. pons, cerebellum 5. medulla
Ventricles of the 1. telencephalon 2. diencephalon 3. mesencephalon 4. metencephalon 5. myelencephalon 1. lateral 2. third ventricle 3. cerebral aqueduct 4. fourth ventricle 5. central canal
1. failure of the rostral neuropore to close causes 2. failure of the caudal neuropore to close causes 1. anencephaly 2. spina bifida
The right ventricle of the heart is formed primarily from which embryonic structure? Bulbus Cordis
The folding of the heart tube takes place during which week of development? 4th week
What week of development does the cardiovascular system start to develop? 3rd week
Dextrocardia abnormal condition where the heart is located toward the right side of the chest
Situs inversus condition where all organs are mirror image of normal; usually asymptomatic (related to Kartagener's syndrome)
Extend from the dosal and ventral heart wall to create the atriovetnricular canals. endocardial cushions
Separates the aorta and pulmonary arteries. aorticopulmonary septum (neural crest cells form)
What happens to the following structures after birth? 1. Umbilical Veins 2. Ductus Venosus 3. Ductus arteriosus 4. Umbilical artery 1. Ligamentum teres 2. Ligamentum venosus 3. ligamentum arteriosum 4. medial umbulical ligaments
What are the malformation of the tetrology of fallot? 1. overriding aorta 2. pulmonary stenosis 3. ventricular septal defect 4. hypertrophy of the right ventricle
Where do the following ASDs occur in the atria? 1. Ostium Primum 2. Ostium Secundum 3. Sinus Venosus 1. bottom 2. middle 3. top
Identify the origin of the major heart input/outputs: 1. Inferior vena cava 2. superior vena cava 3. coronary sinus 4. aorta 5. pulmonary arteries 1. right vitelline 2. right cardinal 3. left horn of the sinus venosus 4. anterior truncus arteriosus then 4th aortic arch 5. posterior truncus arteriosus then 6th aortic arch
Before birth, is pulmonary or systemic circulation under higher pressure? Why? pulmonary because of hypoxic vasoconstriction which increases resistance and thus pressure
What forms to separate the trachea from the esophagus? tracheoesophageal ridges grow together to form a septum
Which pharyngeal branches make the larynx? 4 and 6
What is the blood supply to the: 1. Foregut 2. Midgut 3. Hindgut 1. celiac artery 2. superior mesenteric artery 3. inferior mesenteric artery
1. Dorsal bud of the pancreas comes from which structure? 2. Which portion of the pancreas does it develop into? 1. duodenum 2. tail and body
1. Ventral bud of the pancreas comes from which structure? 2. Which portion of the pancreas does it develop into? 1. gallbladder 2. head & uncinate process
1. Accessory pancreatic duct is made from which pancreatic bud? 2. Main pancreatic duct is made form which pancreatic bud? 1. dorsal 2. some dorsal but mostly ventral
What does the gallbladder grow out of? bile duct
1. In what week of development do the intestines begin to herniate? 2. Which week do they return? 1. 6th 2. 10th
What is the vitelline duct? tube that joins the yolk sac to the midgut lumen of the fetus (may persist as a Meckel's diverticulum)
What two hormones are secreted by the fetal testis that contribute to male differentiation? Which cells of the testis secrete them? 1. Mullerian inhibiting substance - Sertoli cells 2. Testosterone - Leydig cells
Which hormone is responsible for: 1. Male internal genitalia development 2. Male external genitalia development 1. testosterone 2. DHT
What is the pathway for germ cell movement during the 6th week of development? migrate from yolk sac up the hindgut and into the genital ridge
Determine which layer of the testes joins with the following structures 1. external oblique 2. internal oblique 3. transverse abdominis 4. transversalis fascia 5. parietal peritoneum 1. external spermatic fascia 2. cremaster muscle 3. nothing 4. internal spermatic fascia 5. tunica vaginalis
What do the structures develop into in a male: 1. genital tubercle 2. urogenital folds 3. labioscrotal swellings 1. penis, glans penis, corpora spongiosum and cavernosa 2. ventral aspect of penis 3. scrotum
What do the structures develop into in a female: 1. genital tubercle 2. urogenital folds 3. labioscrotal swellings 1. clitoris, glans clitoris 2. labia minora 3. labia majora
What are the two divisions of the blastocyst? What do these divisions give rise to? 1. trophoblast -- placenta 2. embryoblast -- embryo
At week 2, the trophoblast develops into what two layers? cytotrophoblast and syncitiotrophoblast
Which cell layers does the following form into: 1. epiblast 2. hypoblast 1. ectoderm and mesoderm 2. endoderm
What is the process of estrogen production by the fetoplacental unit (starting with cholesterol)? 1. cholesterol is taken up by the placenta from maternal blood and converted to DHEA by the fetal adrenal gland 2. DHEA is converted to estrogen by the placenta
Paramesonephric duct develops into female fallopian tube, cervix, upper vagina
1. At which fetal stage does implantation occur? 2. How many cells make up this stage? 1. blastocyst 2. 100+ cells
How do the following teratogens effect the fetus? 1. DES 2. folate antagonists 3. lithium 1. vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma 2. neural tube defects 3. Enstein's anomaly (atrialized right ventricle)
How do dizygotic and monozygotic twins differ in the number of: 1. amniotic sacs 2. chorions 3. placentas 1. both have 2 amniotic sacs 2. dizygotic have 2 chorion while monozygotic share a chorion 3. both have 2 placentas
1. inner layer of the chorionic villi that makes cells 2. outer layer of the chorionic villi that secrets βhCG 1. cytotrophoblast 2. syncytiotrophoblast
Duct between the bladder and yolk sac urachus
What are the sites of fetal erythropoiesis in order: 1. yolk sac 2. liver 3. spleen 4. bone marrow
Which fetal shunt bypasses hepatic circulation. ductus venosus
Remnant of the umbilical vein Ligamentum teres
Remnant of the ductus arteriosus Ligamentum arteriosum
Cerebellar tonsil herniation through foramen magnum Chiari II
Large posterior fossa with absent cerebellar vermis Dandy-Walker
What do the following aortic arch derivatives form into: 1. 3rd 2. 4th 3. 6th 1. carotid arteries 2. left aortic arch, right subclavian 3. proximal pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus
Which germ layer makes up: 1. brachial cleft 2. brachial arch 3. brachial pouch CAP covers outside from inside 1. Clefts = ectoderm 2. Arches = mesoderm 3. Pouches = endoderm
Which muscle and nerve correspond to the brancial arch derivatives: 1 2 3 4 6 1. muscles of mastication; trigeminal 2. muscles of facial expression; facial nerve 3. stylo-pharyngeus; glosso-pharyngeal nerve 4. pharynx muscles, vagus 6. larynx muscles, vagus
Which branchial pouches develop into the parathyroid glands. 1. 3rd pouch develops into the inferior parathyroid glands 2. 4th pouch develops into the superior parathyroids
Which branchial pouches develop into the thymus 3rd
remnant of the thyroglossal duct foramen cecum
1. failed fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes 2. failed fusion of lateral palatine processes/nasal septum 1. cleft lip 2. cleft palate
What structures comprise the: 1. foregut 2. midgut 3. hindgut 1. pharynx to proximal duodenum 2. distal duodenum to transverse colon 3. transverse colon to upper rectum
Midgut rotates around which artery on its return to the abdominal cavity. superior mesenteric artery
Pancreas divisum ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds fail to fuse; pancreas drains by two ducts
Which pancreatic bud contributes the majority of the pancreatic tissue? dorsal pancreatic bud
Which organ arises from mesentery but is supplied by a foregut artery (celiac) spleen
1. first stage of kidney development that degenerates 2. stage of kidney that contributes to the male genital system 3. permanent stage of kidney development 1. pronephros 2. mesonephros 3. metanephros
Portion of the metanephros that gives rise to structures from the 1. collecting duct to the ureter 2. glomerulus to collecting tubule 1. ureteric bud 2. metanephric mesenchym
Most common site of obstruction leading to hydronephrosis in fetus ureteropelvic junction - last to canalize
Horshoe kidneys get trapped under which artery? inferior mesenteric artery
What causes a bicornuate uterus? incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts
pulls testes down to the scrotum gubernaculum
1. Failure of urethral folds to close 2. faulty positioning of genital tubercle 1. hypospadias 2. epispadias
Created by: amichael87