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beginning of pathology terms

what is the internal stability of the body? Homeostasis:
what is the abnormal condition causing measurable changes in structure and function? Pathology:
what is the development of disease in stages? Pathogenesis:
When all systems and organs function, the body does what? maintains an internal stability of homeostasis.
What causes a pathologic state? when body systems or organs can no longer maintain normal processes
what is the Internal equilibrium? Systemic health:
what is the inability to adapt to internal/external stressors or challenges? Disease state:
What is a defined collection of signs and symptoms that characterize a condition Syndrome:
When the internal equilibrium is disrupted and the body is no longer able to adapt to internal and external challenges, what happens? a disease state develops
How long does it take for a disease state to develop? it can be quite variable - from hours to days, weeks, or even months.)
what are abnormal objective findings? Examples: redness, swelling, purulent discharge, fever Signs
what are subjective patient reports Examples: difficulty swallowing, pain, fatigue, headache Symptoms
The collection of objective findings (signs) is compared with the subjective patient reports (symptoms) to give what? an overall clinical impression or presentation
what is it when the onset is usually abrupt ? -symptoms present themselves over hours to days duration brief (<6 months) Acute Illness
what is it when the onset is slower? -symptoms persist from acute/subacute phases duration indefinite (> 6 months) Chronic Illness
what can be quite time-limited? -examples: a common cold or a bout of influenza, and more severe, like a heart attack or appendicitis. Illnesses such as hernias may present more slowly over a period of days or months Acute illnesses:
what can start out as an acute illness that does not resolve? -example:sinusitus. Chronic illness:
Some illnesses can be, what? chronic conditions with recurrent, acute exacerbations, such as asthma or sickle cell anemia.
what are changes in the genetic code? Genetic mutations:
what are passed from one generation to the next may occur spontaneously? genetic mutations
what may be caused by agents that disrupt the normal DNA sequence? genetic mutations
What are mutagens? Agents that can damage DNA, including certain chemicals, radiation, and viruses.
When a genetic disease occurs spontaneously, what happens? there will not be a family history of the disease that can be traced
what is the single abnormal gene on only one of a chromosomes of a pair. autosomal dominant
what is the same abnormal gene present on both chromosomes of a pair? autosomal recessive
what is an abnormal gene that is only located on a X chromosome? x-linked (sex-linked) recessive
hunington's disease & marfan's syndrome are examples of what disease? autosomal dominant disease
cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia are examples of what disease? autosomal recessive disease
hemophilia and some forms of muscular dystrophy are examples of what disease? x-linked recessive disease
(infection) Pathogenic agents include? bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa
What types of treatments are used for infections caused by common pathogens? Treatment of infection must be specific to the type of pathogen identified or suspected.
what are some examples of treatment of infection? Antibiotics and antivirals
what are used for bacterial infections and must be specific to the subtype of bacteria? Antibiotics
what are used for viruses? antivirals
(infection) what are the body’s defense systems against infection? natural mechanical and chemical barriers, inflammatory response, immune response.
What is an example of a mechanical barrier? The skin is the ultimate mechanical barrier that keeps us safe from a multitude of pathogens.
What is an example of a chemical barrier? Chemical barriers include such things as the body pH, which creates a hostile environment and prevents certain organisms from successfully taking over.
(inflammation&repair) How is an acute inflammatory response marked by? Redness, Heat, Swelling, Pain, Loss of function
Why does acute inflammation occur? It is a normal protective physiologic response to tissue injury and disease.
What is an acute inflammation? an exudative response, attempts to wall off, destroy, and digest bacteria and dead or foreign tissue.
Acute inflammatory response can be inhibited by? Immune disorders, Chronic illness, Medications (especially steroids)
A chronic inflammatory response may what? damage the affected tissue and inhibit the healing process.
examples of chronic inflammatory are? rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis
Created by: a.quimbaya1