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Pharmacology Reviews

QuestionAnswer
Aspirin Do not give together w/ other __________. Do not give to what age group? why? with other anticoagulants. Stop taking Aspirin some days before surgery. Do not give to children with viral infection(Reye syndrome)
NSAID’s contraindicated for people with what condition? e.g. Ibuprofen—Take with food; contraindicated for people with GI ulcers
Morphine hold if resp less than what? A respiratory depressant. It should be withheld if the respirations are below 10
Dilantin anticonvulsant can cause what s/e? Causes gum hyperplasia. Advice client to visit dentist frequently
Predisone : Causes Cushing like symptoms. Common side effects are immunosupression(monitor client for infection), hyperglycemia
Heparin Monitor what lab? :H-E-P-E-R-I-N _ _ _ what is the antidote? PTT Antidote i-s protamine sulfate
Coumadin monitor which lab? Which value, PT or PTT, does heparin influence? Which one does coumadin? Stumped? You can find the right answer by counting to 10 C-o-u-m-i-d-i-n _ _ _ what is the antidote? PT. Antidote is Vitamin K
Cogentin ANTI-PARKINSONIAN Used to treat EPS
Sinemet Drug is effective when tremors are not observed
Theophylline/Aminophylline Bronchodialator Side effects--Tachycardia
Digoxin. use. s/e therapetic level ___-___ng/ml (Lanoxin): Signs of toxicity: Pt will complaint of visual change in colors. Cardiovascular. They would also complain of loss of appetite.
Magnesium Sulfate ANTIHYPERTENSIVE (PRE-ECLAMPSIA)Monitor for deep tendon reflex and respiratory depression
Hydrochlothiazide-use.monitor what levels? DIURETICS Monitor potassium levels
Lasix use. monitor what levels? Monitor potassium levels
Aldactone. class. use. it spares what? Potassium sparing
Lithium Carbonate therapuetic range ___-___mEq/L :PSYCHOTROPICS Know therapeutic range (0.8 to 1.2mEq). Also know symptoms of toxicity. Adequate fluid and salt intake is important.
MAOI inhibitors : PSYCHOTROPICS Have dangerous food-drug interactions. Food with Tyramine should be avoided. For example: aged cheese, wine etc.
Disulfiram (Antabuse) : Used for alcohol aversion therapy. Clients started on Disulfiram must avoid any form of alcohol or they would develop a severe reaction. Teach pt to avoid some over-the-counter cough preparations, mouthwash etc.
Oxytocin Assess uterus frequently for tetanic contraction.
Narcan: Reverses the effects of what class of drugs? Reverses the effects of narcotics
Calcium Gluconate antidote for what? Antidote for magnesium sulfate
Vitamin K antidote for what? Antidote for Coumadin
Tegretol Carbamazepine - side effects.Common adverse effects include drowsiness, headaches and migraines, motor coordination impairment and/or upset stomach. Carbamazepine preparations typically greatly decrease a person's alcohol tolerance.
Atropine What do you do before giving this drug? check BP
Epogen. use. moa Used in treating anemia because it increases RBC production.
Acyclovir. class. use anti-viral medication used in treating shingles.
Aminoglycocides Monitor client taking antibiotics such as Vancomycin for ototoxicity. Pt will complain of tinnitus, room spinning (vertigo) and nausea.
dilantin. use. therapeutic level __-___mcg/dl anti-epileptic/anticonvulsant. 10-20mcg/dl
When clinical signs of volume overload exists, these drugs are used to increase urinary output, decrease blood volume, preload, and cardiac workload. Diuretics
Three types of diuretics used to decrease blood volume and lower blood pressure. Loop Diuretics, Thiazides, and Potassium-sparing
These diuretics depress Na reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle and promote potassium excretion. Thiazide
hydrochlorothazide (HCTZ) Class: antihypertensive, diuretic; thiazide diuretic
Inhibits aldosterone, causing Na to be excreted in the distal tubule, but sparing potassium. Potassium-sparing diuretic
Spironolactone(Aldactone) Class; diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics
Labs to monitor during Diuretic therapy BUN, creatinine, electrolyets, potassium levels, glucose, uric acid levels, hypotension,
Thiazide diuretics are contraindicated in clients with? Renal failure. Cumulative effects of the thiazide may develop in patients with impaired renal function. In such patients, thiazides may precipitate azotemia (increased urea).
Block epinephrine from interacting with beta receptor sites. Beta Blockers
Selective beta blockers Lower b/p by blocking beta receptors in the heart and peripheral vessels, reducing heart rate, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output.
acebutolol (Sectral); atenolol (Tenormin); betaxolol (Kerlone); bisoprolol (Zebeta); esmolol (Brevibloc); metoprolol (Lopressor and Torprol-XL) Cardioselective beta-blockers
Nonselective beta-blockers block beta2-adrenergic receptors on the smooth muscle of the bronchioles and blood vessels. Does not only work specially on the heart.
nadolol (Corgard); propranolol (Inderal); timolol (Blocadren) Nonselective beta-blockers
Sudden stop of beta-blockers administration can lead to what HTN crisis
before taking beta-blockers med the nurse should assess the ______ which must be over ______ before giving to patient apical pulse rate; 50bpm
iontrope decreases mycardial contractility
chonotrope decrease heart rate
Block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, one of the most powerful vasoconstrictors in the body, thereby decreasing b/p. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (Ace-inhibitors)
Ace Inhibitors also blocks the release of what to reduce Na and water retension. aldosterone
benazepril (Lotensin); captopril (Capoten); enalapril/enalaprilat (Vasotec, Vasotec IV), fosinopril (Monopril), lisinopril (Prinvil, Zestril); moexipril (Univasc); perindopril (Aceon); quinapril (Accupril); ramipril (Altace); trandolapril (Mavik) Class: antihypertensive; ACE inhibitors.
Cardio drugs that cause severe dry cough Ace inhibitors
lab tests considerations for Ace inhibitors BUN, creatinine, electrolytes, serum potassium, CBC, AST, ALT.
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Anti-infective drugs: Gentamicin (Garamycin, Alcomicin, Genoptic), kanamycin (Kantrex), neomycin (Mycifradin), streptomycin (Streptomycin), tobramycin (Tobrex, Nebcin), amikacin (Amikin)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting agents: Benazepril (Lotensin), lisinopril (Zestril), captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), fosinopril (Monopril), moexipril (Univas), quinapril (Acupril), ramipril (Altace)
Beta adrenergic blockers: Acebutolol (Monitan, Rhotral, Sectral), atenolol (Tenormin, Apo-Atenol, Nova-Atenol), esmolol (Brevibloc), metaprolol (Alupent, Metaproterenol), propanolol (Inderal)
Benzodiazepine drugs: Clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), chlordiazepox-ide (Librium), lorazepam (Ativan), flurazepam (Dalmane)
Phenothiazine drugs: Chlopromazine (Thorazine), prochlorperazine (Compazine), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), promethazine (Phenergan), hydroxyzine (Vistaril), fluphenazine (Prolixin)
Glucocorticoid drugs: Prednisolone (Delta-Cortef, Prednisol, Prednisolone), prednisone (Apo-Prednisone, Deltasone, Meticorten, Orasone, Panasol-S), betametha-sone (Celestone, Selestoject, Betnesol), dexamethasone (Decadron, Deronil, Dexon, Mymethasone, Dalalone), cortisone (Co
Antivirals: Acyclovir (Zovirax), ritonavir (Norvir), saquinavir (Invirase, Fortovase), indinavir (Crixivan), abacavir (Ziagen), cidofovir (Vistide), ganciclovir (Cytovene, Vitrasert)
Cholesterol-lowering drugs: Atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvas-tatin (Zocar), rosuvastatin (Crestor)
Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs: Valsartan (Diovan), candesartan (Altacand), losartan (Cozaar), telmisartan (Micardis)
Histamine 2 antagonist drugs: Celecoxib (Celebrex), valdecoxib (Bextra)
Proton pump inhibitors: Esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), pantopra-zole (Protonix), rabeprazole (AciPhex)
Anticoagulant drugs: Heparin sodium (Hepalean), enoxaparin sodium (Lovenox), dalteparin sodium (Fragmin)
Antacids Reduce hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Antianemics Increase red blood cell production
Anticholenergics Decrease oral secretions
Anticoagulants Prevent clot formation
Antidiarrheals Decrease gastric motility and reduce water in bowel
Antihistamines Block the release of histamine
Antihypertensives Lower blood pressure and increase blood flow
Bronchodilators Dilate large air passages in asthma/lung disease
Laxatives Promote the passage of stool
Miotics Constrict the pupils
Mydriatics Dilate the pupils
Dilate the pupils Relieve moderate to severe pain
Created by: lgultom1