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GI Reviews

QuestionAnswer
The larger glandular organ in the body, which function as an accesory orhgan of the digestion is? The Liver
Digestion begin? In the mouth where food and saliva begins the breakdown of starches
Define Digestion The physical and mechanical breakdown of the food into absorbble subsatncews and is completed in the small intestines
Describe digestion in the small intestines -Carbohydrate are hydrolysed to monosaccharides -Fats to Fatty Acids -Proteins into amino acids
Enzymes used in Digestion Ptyalin, Pepsin, Trypsin, Lipase, protease, and Amylase
Wher is each enzyme produce? -Ptyalin(Amylase)found in the mouths saliva:produce by the adrenalin gland, Pepsin found in the stomach, Trypsin is a Protease produced by the pancrease
MOst common clinical sign of infection Diarrhea
Primary diagnostic Tests Stool Culture
Crohn's Disease A form of irritale bowel disease(IBD) that causes inflamation of the digestive tract. Ussualy occurs in the terminal ileum but can occurs any where in the digestive tract
Chron's Disease Clinical Manifestetation The principal symptoma are diarrhea and abdominal pain. Diarrhea is ussually non-bloody, weight loss,malnutrition, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, anemia, increaseperistalsis and pain.
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this class of GI medications in general should be taken on a regular schedule, 1 to 3 hours after each meal and at bedtime antacids
to provide maximum benefit, an antacid treatment should elevate gastric pH above... 5
to prevent reactions with other medications, you should allow ___ ______ between antacid administration and the administration of other medications 1 hour
these antacids are slow acting, contain significant amounts of sodium, and commonly cause constipation aluminum hydroxides
these antacids are rapid acting and release carbon dioxide in the stomach, causing belching and flatulence calcium carbonates
these antacids are rapid acting and can also act as saline laxatives, causing diarrhea, and are contraindicated in patients with obstruction, appendicitis, or undiagnosed abdominal pain magnesium hydroxides
this antacid has a rapid onset, increases flatulence and abdominal pressure, and can induce systemic alkalosis sodium bicarbonate
magnesium hydroxide is usually administered in combination with _______ _________ to prevent diarrhea aluminum hydroxide
this gastric protectant agent is administered with meals, and can cause diarrhea and abdominal pain misoprostol (cytotec)
this gastric protectant agent should be taken on an empty stomach and may cause constipation sucralfate (carafate)
this glass of gastrointestinal medications supresses the secretion of gastric acid by blocking histamine at the receptor site; used for long tem management of GERD H2 Receptor Antagonists
this H2 receptor antagonist passes the blood-brain barrier, and can also cause hypotension and dysrhythmias cimetidine (tagamet)
this H2 receptor antagonist does not cross the blood brain barrier and rarely produces side effects ranitidine (zantac)
common H2 receptor antagonists cimetidine (tagamet), famotidine (pepsid), nizatidine (axid), and ranitidine (zantac)
common proton pump inhibitors esomeprazole (nexium), lansoprazole (prevacid), omeprazole(prilosec) pantoprazole (protonix), rabeprazole (aciphex)
dual therapy for H pylori infection usually includes either zantac or prilosec in combination with clarithromycin (biaxin)
triple therapy for H. pylori includes what components? two antibacterial agents and a proton pump inhibitor
this class of medications stimulates the motility of the GI tract and increases the rate of gastric emptying without stimulating gastric, biliary, or pancreatic secretions GI stimulants
at what time of day are GI stimulants generally administered? 30 minutes before meals and at bedtime
when are GI stimulants contraindicated? mechanical obstruction, perforation, or GI hemorrhage
this GI stimulant can cause parkinson's like symptoms reglan (metoclopramide)
commonly used GI stimulants bethanechol chloride (urecholine, duvoid), dexpanthenol (ilopan), metoclopramide (reglan), neostigmine methylsulfate (prostigmin)
these two medications are used to treat hepatic encephalopaty lactulose(cholac), neomycin (mycifradin)
this medication for hepatic encephalopathy lowers colonic pH, causing ammonia to be pulled into the bowel and excreted in the feces and improves protein tolerance in patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis lactulose (cholac)
this medication for hepatic encephalopathy reduces the number of colonic bacteria thus reducing ammonia production neomycin (mycidfradin)
these 5 classes of medications are used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease antimicrobials, 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, immunomodulators
this class of medication is used to prevent or treat secondary infection associated with inflammatory bowel disease antimicrobials
these two classes of medications are used to decrease gastrointestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids
this class of medication is used to suppress the immune system in inflammatory bowel disease immunosuppressants
this class of medication reduces inflammation and interrupts the movement of leukocytes, which reduces inflammatory response in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease immunomodulators
the antimicrobial most commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases metronidazole (flagyl)
5-aminosalicylates that are commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disorders sulfasalazine(azulfidine), mesalamine (rowasa), olsalazine (dipentum)
corticosteroids commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disorders cortisone, prednisone, budesonide (entocort), hydrocortisone
immmunosuppressants commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disorders azathioprine (imuran), cyclosporine (neoral), mercaptopurine
immunomodulators commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease infliximab (remicade), natalizumab (tysabri)
common side effect of antiemetics drowsiness
this type of laxative absorbs water into feces and helps produce large, soft stools; contraindicated in bowel obstruction bulk-forming laxatives
this type of laxative stimulates motility of the large intestin stimulant cathartic
this type of laxative attracts water into the large intestine to produce bulk and stimulate peristalsis saline (osmotic) cathartics
this type of laxative interferes with the absorption of fat soluble vitamins and softens stool lubricant
these medications inhibit absorption of water in the large intestine resulting in softer stool stool softerners
commonly used bulk forming laxatives fibercon, citrucel, metamucil
commonly used stimulant cathartics bisacodyl, castor oil
commonly used stool softeners docusate calcium (surfak), docusate sodium (colace)
commonly used lubricant laxative mineral oil
when should opoids not be used to control diarrhea? poisons, infections, or bacterial toxins
these medications relax the smooth muscle of the GI tract antispasmodics
opioids used to treat diarrhea codeine, difenoxin with atropine (motofen), diphenoxylate with atropine (lomotil), loperamide (imodium), tincture of opium
commonly used antispasmodic dicyclomine hydrochloride (antispas, bentyl)
this sphincter prevents reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus cardiac (lower esophageal) sphincter
this sphincter regulates the rate of stomach emptying into the small intestin pylorlic sphincter
the chief coenzyme of gastric juice which converts proteins into proteases and peptones gastrin
this part of the small intestine contains the openings of the bile and pancreatic ducts duodenum
digests starch to maltose amylase
reduces maltose to monosaccharide glucose maltase
splits lactose into galactose and glucose lactase
splits nuclec acids to nucleotides nucleose
reduces sucrose to fructose and glucose sucrase
activates trypsinogen to trypsin enterokinase
these play a vital role in the synthesis of some B vitamins and vitamin K intestinal bacteria
prevents contents of the large intestine from entering the ileum ileocecal valve
this organ synthesizes glucose, amino acids, and fats liver
this organ stores 200 to 400 mL of blood and also filters the blood liver
stores and concentrates bile and contracts to force bile into the duodenum during the digestion of fates gallbladder
the cystic duct joins the hepatic duct to form common bile duct
the presence of fatty materials in the duodenum stimulates the liberation of this, which causes contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi cholecystokinin
secretes sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the acidity of the stomach contents that enter the duodenum pancreas
examination of the upper GI tract under fluoroscopy after the patient drinks barium sulfate barium swallow (upper GI seies)
after a barium swallow test, the client should be instructed to increase po fluid until stools resume their normal color
a fluoroscopic and radiographic examination of the large intestine after the rectal instillation of barium sulfate barium enema (lower GI series
the diet restrictions before a barium enema study include low residue diet for 1-2 days, clear liquid diet day before and laxative the evening before, NPO after midnight
requires the passage of a NG tube into the stomach to aspirate gastric contents for analysis of acidity, appearance, and volume gastric analysis
how long should a patient be NPO before gastric analysis 8 to 12 hours
upper GI endoscopy is also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy(EGD)
following sedation, an endoscope is passed down the esophagus to view the gastric wall, sphincters, and duodenum EGD
how long should a patient remain NPO following EGD 1 to 2 hours
use of a rigid scope to examine the anal canal anoscopy
before anoscopy, proctoscopy, and sigmoidoxcopy enemas are given until returns are clear
following endoscopic examinations, guarding of the abdomen, increased fever and chills, pallor, abdominal distensiona and pain, restlessness, tachycardia, and tachypnea are signs of colonoscopy
following endoscopic examinations, guarding of the abdomen, increased fever and chills, pallor, abdominal distensiona and pain, restlessness, tachycardia, and tachypnea are signs of bowel perforation; peritonitis
performed with a fiberoptic laparoscope that allows direct visualization of organs and structures within the abdomen laparoscopy (peritoneoscopy)
performed to detect gallstones and to assess the ability of the gallbladder to fill, concentrate its contents, contract, and empty cholecystography
before colecystography, patient should be assessed for allergies to iodine or seafood
examination of the hepatiobiliary system performed via a flexible endoscope inserted into the esophagus to the descending duodenum endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
transabdominal removal of fluid from the peritoneal cavity for analysis percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
transabdominal removal of fluid from the peritoneal cavity for analysis paracentesis
why should a patient void before paracentesis is performed? to move the bladder out of the way of the paracentesis needle
how is a patient positioned for parcentesis? to move the bladder out of the way of the paracentesis needle
needle inserted through the abdominal wall to the liver to obtain a tissue sample for biopsy and microscopic evaluation liver biopsy
these laboratory values should be checked before a liver biopsy is performed PT, PTT, INR
patient should like on this side for this long after a liver biopsy right side, two hours
urea breath test detects the presence of ________, which is the bacteria that causes perptic ulcer disease heicobacter pylori
__________ is released during liver damage or biliary obstruction alkaline phosphatase, (bilirubin is also an acceptable answer)
prothrombin time is _________ with liver damage prolonged
_________________ assesses the ability of the liver to deanimate protein byproducts serum ammonia
liver enzymes are ______________ with liver damage elevated
an increase in _________ indicates pancreatitis or biliary obstruction cholesterol
increased values of amylase and lipase indicate __________ pancreatitis
normal bowel sounds occur every __ to ___ seconds 5 to 15
how long must you listen before assuming that bowel sounds are absent? 5 minutes
backflow of gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus gastroesophageal reflux
causes of GERD incompetent lower esophageal sphincter, pyloric stenosis, or motility disorders
also known as esophageal or diaphragmatic hernia hiatal
inflammation of the stomach or gastric mucosa gastritis
in chronic gastritis, a deficiency of this vitamin may develop B12
ulceration in the mucosal wall of the stomach, pylorus, duodenum, or esophagus peptic ulcer
the proper order for performing an abdominal assessment inspect, auscultate, percuss, palpate
chronic gastritis is distuinguished from acute gastritis by the following symptoms in addition to nausea, vomiting, and anorexia belching, heartburn after eating, sour taste in mouth, vitamin B12 deficiency
ulcers are named according to their _____ location
most common sites of peptic ulcers stomach and duodenum
mucosal barrier protectants should be administered... 1 hour before meals
pain with gastric ulcers is usually located in ___________ and occurs ________ after meals mid or left epigastric, 30 to 60 minutes
pain with duodenal ulcers is usually located in ___________ and occurs _________ after meals midepigastric, 1.5 to 3 hours
Created by: lgultom1