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Endo & Reproduction

Pharmacology: Endocrine and Reproduction

Sulfonylureas mechanism of action? block K+ channels on pancreatic β cells leading to cell depolarization and insulin release
Mechanism of action of Acarbose, miglitol inhibits α-glucosidase in brush borders of small intestine → ↓ absorbable carbohydrate in intestine
Mechanism of action of Pioglitazone on peripheral and liver tissues. Thiazolidinedione class 1. sensitization of tissues to insulin - binds PPAR-γ and ↑ gene expression of proteins that facilitate the action of insulin 2. ↑ insulin receptor numbers 3. ↓ hepatic gluconeogenesis
Mechanism of action of exenatide GLP-1 analog that stiulates release of insulin from pancreatic β-islet cells
How does octreotide effect insulin levels? long-acting somatostatin analog that decreases insulin secretion
How does Diazoxide effect insulin levels? diazoxide activates K+ channels leading to pancreatic cell membrane hyperpolarization which decreases insulin release
What is the primary tissue thiazolidinediones act on? adipose tissue (contains the highest level of PPAR-γ)
Which diabetes drug is associated with: 1. fluid retention & weight gain 2. hypoglycemia 3. GI distress 4. lactic acidosis 5. pancreatitis 6. hepatotoxicity 1. thiazolidinediones 2. sulfonylurea 3. acarbose, miglitol 4. metformin 5. exenatide (GLP-1 analog) 6. thiazolidinediones
Which diabetes medications: 1. enhance glucose uptake in adipose 2. increase insulin release from pancreas 3. inhibit liver production of glucose 1. thiazolidinediones, metformin 2. sulfonylureas, meglitinide 3. thiazolidinediones, metformin
1. Peptide hormone that is secretes with insulin by pancreatic β cells and decreases α-cell glucagon secretion 2. Mechanism of action of demeclocycline 1. amylin 2. ADH antagonist
Repaglinide mechanism of action Meglitinide class. Blocks pancreatic β-cell K+ channel → cell depolarization and insulin release.
1. Competitive dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor 2. Irreversible dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor 3. Synthetic amylin 1. Sitagliptin 2. Saxagliptin 3. Pramlintide
How are dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors useful in controlling diabetes? 1. DPP-4 degrades incretins 2. incretins enhance insulin secretion 3. thus DPP-4 inhibitors enhance insulin secretions
Metyrapone 1. Mechanism of action 2. treatment usage 1. inhibits steroid 11β-hydroxylase 2. used to treat Cushings syndrome
Finasteride 1. Mechanism of action 2. Usage 1. 5α-reductase inhibitor 2. BPH, male pattern baldness (androgenic alopecia)
1. androgen receptor antagonist used in prostate cancer 2. GnRH analog 1. Flutamide 2. Leuprolide, Goserelin
What is the mechanism of action of the oral contraceptives? suppresses gonadotropins, especially midcycle LH surge
1. Propylthiouracil & methimazole mechanism of action 2. Which action does propylthiouracil have that methimazole does not? 1. inhibit organification of I- to I2 and coupling of thyroid hormone synthesis 2. ↓ peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
Synthetic insulins: 1. rapid acting (3) 2. intermediate acting 3. long-acting 1. regular insulin, lispro, aspart 2. NPH 3. glargine
1. Which diabetes drug is contraindicated in renal failure? 2. Drug used in gestational diabetes 3. Type of insulin preferred to acutely treat diabetic ketoacidosis 1. metformin 2. insulin 3. regular insulin
1. Main side effect of metformin? 2. Why is this seen? 1. lactic acidoss 2. metformin ↓ gluconeogenesis so lactic acid cannot be degraded
1. Which receptor does insulin act through? 2. Which receptor does IGF-1 act through? 1. receptor tyrosine kinase 2. G-protein adenylate cyclase
Why should nonselective β-blockers be avoided in diabetic patients? blockade of β2-adrenergic receptors inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and lipolysis
Which diabetes drug increases adiponectin? thiazolidinediones through ↑PPARγ → ↑ fat → ↑ adiponectin
1. How may potassium perchlorate be used to treat hyperthyroidism? 2. Propanolol's effect in hyperthyroidism 1. is competes with iodine for uptake into the follicular cell by the sodium/iodine transporter 2. ↓ sympathetic outflow; ↓ peripheral conversion of T4 to T31.
1. Thyroxine replacement therapy 2. Drug used to treat hyperprolactinemia 3. Drug used to treat acromegaly 1. Levothyroxine 2. bromocriptine (DA agonist) 3. octreotide (somatostatin)
1. Drug that can increase release of vWF from platelets 2. ADH antagonist used in SIADH 1. desmopressin 2. demeclocycline
What effect does prednisone have on: 1. WBC's 2. lipolysis 3. gluconeogenesis 1. acutely ↑ neutrophils; ↓ all other WBC's 2. blocks insulin to favor lipolysis 3. ↑ gluconeogenesis
What is the treatment for thyroid storm? β1-blocker and propylthiouracil
1. Treatment for central diabetes insipidus 2. Treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 1. desmopressin (intranasal) 2. hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin or amiloride
Which antisiezure medication is given for prevention and treatment of eclampsia? magnesium sulfate
1. 5α-reductase inhibitor 2. Why is this an effective treatment for BPH? 1. finasteride 2. inhibits conversion of testosterone to DHT; DHT is responsible for prostate growth
What frequency must GnRH (or leuprolide) be given to treat: 1. infertility 2. prostate cancer 1. pulsatile - causes LH/FSH release 2. continuous - inhibits LH/FSH release
Clomiphene 1. Mechanism of action 2. Clinical use? 1. partial agonist at estrogen receptors in hypothalamus 2. infertility, Polycystic ovary (increase LH/FSH release)
How does Tamoxifen effect estrogen receptors on: 1. Bone 2. Breast 3. Endometrium 1. Agonist 2. Antagonist 3. Agonist
How does Raloxifen effect estrogen receptors on: 1. Bone 2. Breast 3. Endometrium 1. Agonist 2. Antagonist 3. Antagonist
1. Anastrozole mechanism of action 2. Why is it beneficial in postmenopausal women with breast cancer? 1. Aromatase ihibitor 2. the primary source of estrogen in postmenopausal women is the conversion of androstenedione from the adrenal glands to estrogen via aromatase in adipocytes
1. α1-antagonist that is selective for receptors in prostate versus the vasculature 2. non-selective α1 receptor antagonist 1. Tamsulosin 2. terazosin, prazosin
1. PGE2 analog causing cervical dilation and uterine contraction 2. β2-agonist that relaxes uterus and reduces premature contractions 1. dinoprostone 2. Ritodrine/terbutaline
Mechanism of action of Sildenafil inhibit cGMP phosphodiesterase
Naturally occuring substance used to inhibit bone resorption in Paget's disease of bone calcitonin
What is the treatment for myxedema coma? free T4
Does glucocorticoid usage lead to potassium ion imbalance? yes; possess mineralocorticoid acitivity which can lead to hypokalemia
Treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy propylthiouracil is more protein bound which reduces its crossing of the placenta
Progesterone receptor inhibitor used to terminate pregnancy Mifepristone
How do the following effect insulin release: 1. β2 receptors 3. α1 receptors 1. block insulin secretion 2. stimulates insulin secretion
Created by: amichael87



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