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Science Exploration of natural world using observations/data/testable hypotheses (natural science)
Scientific Method general structure given to hypothesis driven scientific investigation
observation use senses/instruments to gather data, occurrences, observations (define problem or question)
hypothesis testable statement (potential answer to question)
prediction potential test to hypothesis
experiment perform test based on prediction
independent variable variable being tested/changed
dependent variable result/outcome/measurement
controls untreated or known treatment groups
controlled variables environmental factors which are kept constant between all samples
law/principle statement of working of natural world, derived from facts and hypothesis (not contradicted or changed)
social sciences use sci. method to study behavior subjective to interpretation
formal sciences deals with logical ideas (not nature)(math/comp. science)
raw data data as it is collected, not analyzed or manipulated
averages/means the central point of raw numerical data
standard deviation statistical analysis of how much raw data varies from the mean
energy the ability to move or change things
potential energy stored energy
kinetic energy energy motion
electromagnetic radiation energy bundle (photons) that travel in waves at the speed of light
visible light light (EM radiation) that can be detected with our eyes
mass amount of matter in an object
matter anything that takes up space
atom unit of matter
first law of thermodynamics energy is never created or destroyed (in a closed system)
2nd law of thermodynamics energy tends towards disorder (to become less usable)
food (chemical energy) stored in carbon (carbon bonds or organic molecules)
sun original source of energy for life
primary consumers (herbivores) consume plants
secondary consumers (carnivores) eat primary consumers
law of gravity force of attraction between any objects with mass
weight force of gravity on an object
1st law of inertia 1.object in motion tends to stay in motion 2.object at rest tends to stay at rest 3.inertia is proportional to mass
atom smallest unit of matter that has unique characteristics
elements different types of atoms
nucleus small dense area located in center (comprised of protons and neutrons
protons 1 AMU, charge +1
neutrons 1 AMU, charge 0
strong nuclear force fundamental force of nature
electron cloud region outside nucleus that contains electrons
electron 0 AMU, charge -1
atomic mass number of protons and neutrons
radioactive decay nucleus emits excess energy and becomes more stable
half-life time it takes for 50% of substance to decay
alpha decay atom loses an alpha particle (loses 2 protons and 4 AMU)
alpha particle high energy (2 protons, 2 neutrons)
beta decay a neutron from rad. isotope (gain 1 proton, no change in AMU)
gamma decay nucleus releases EM radiation form of gamma rays
fission results in generation/release of lot of energy (heat)
neutron sponges control rods (control rate of chain reaction)
nuclear waste high energy radioactive waste from spent rods (lasts for 1000s of years)
element simplest substance with distinct properties
Created by: 553396353