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15-Musculoskeletal

Chapt 15 Chabner Language of Medicine 9th Ed

QuestionAnswer
bones provides the framework on which the body is constructed
joints places at which the bones come together
muscles responsible for movement
orthopedists orth-straight, ped-child. surgically and medically treat bone and joint diseases
rheumatologists nonsurgical physicians for specialize primarily in joint problems such as arthritis.
rhemat/o watery flow -refers to joint fluid when used as rhematologist
chiropractor chir-hand. not a physician but has extensive and specialized training in using physical means to manipulate the spinal columns, joints, and soft tissue.
osseous bony
osteocytes bone cells
collagen dense connective tissue strands
cartilaginous tissue resembles osseous tissue but is more flexible and less dense because of a lack of calcium salts in its intercellular spaces. bones of fetus are this material.
ossification bone formation.
bone formation depends on calcium and phosphorus
osteoblasts immature osteocytes that produce the bony tissue that replaces cartilage during ossification
osteoclasts large cells that function to reabsorb, or digest bony tissue. aka bone phagyocyte. digest from inside out.
long bones located in thigh, lower leg, upper and lower arm.
short bones located in wrist and ankle and are small with irregular shapes
flat bones cover soft body parts. skull, shoulder blades, ribs, pelvic bones
sesamoid bones small, rounded bones. like sesame seeds. found near joints and increase the efficiency of the muscles near a particular joint
epiphysis each end of a long bone
diaphysis shaft, or middle region, of a long bone.
epiphyseal line aka plate. represents an area of cartilage tissue that is constantly being replaced by new bone tissue as the bone grows. where growth takes place.
metaphysis flared portion of the bone between epiphysis and diaphysis and adjacent to epiphysis plate
periosteum strong, fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the surface of the long bones except at the ends of the epiphyses
articular cartilage covers the ends of the long bones and the surface of any bone that meets another bone to form a joint
compact (cortical) bone layer of hard, dense bone that lies under the periosteum in all bones and lies chiefly around the diaphysis of long bones.
haversian canals a system of canals containing blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the bone and remove the waste products. located in compact bone.
medullary cavity central, hollowed out area in the shaft of a long bone
yellow bone marrow composed chiefly of fat cells
cancellous bone aka spongy or trabecular hone. more porous and less dense than compact bone.
trabecular interwoven fibers making spongy latticework found in layers in cancellous bone. found largely in epiphyses and metaphysis of long bones and in the middle portion of most other bones. spaces contain red bone marrow.
red bone marrow consists of immature and mature blood cells in various stages of development
bone processes enlarged ares that extend out from bones to serve as attachments for the muscles and tendons
bone head rounded end of a bone separated from the body of the bone by a neck; usually covered by articular cartilage. in the femur is called the femoral head.
greater trochanter large process on the femur for attachment of tendons and muscle. lesser trochanter is a smaller process.
tubercle rounded process on many bones for attachment of tendons and muscles
tuberosity small, rounded elevation on a bone
condyle rounded, knuckle like process at the joint; usually covered by articular cartilage
humerus upper arm bone
fossa shallow depression or cavity in the bone
foramen opening for blood vessels and nerves
fissure narrow, deep, slit-like opening
sinus hollow cavity within a bone
sutures joint of cranial bones
fontanelles "little fountains" soft spots in cranial bones. babies have these. gaps of unossified tissue
frontal bone forms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes
parietal bone the two bones that form the roof and upper part of the sides of the cranium
temporal bone the two bones that form the lower sides and base of the cranium. each bone encloses and ear and contains a fossa for joining with the lower jawbone.
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area of connection between the temporal and mandibular hones
mastoid process round process of the temporal bone behind the ear. mast/o-breast
styloid process projects downward from the temporal bone. styl/o-pole or steak.
occipital bone forms the back and base of the skill and joins the parietal and temporal bones, forming a suture.
formen magnum opening in the inferior portion of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
sphenoid bone the bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull. joins the frontal, occipital, and ethmoid bones and serves as an anchor to hold those bones together. sphen/o-wedge
sella turcica turkish saddle. depression in the sphenoid bone in which the pituitary gland is located
ethmoid bone thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eyes.composed primarily of spongy, cancellous bone which contains numerous small hones. ethm/o-sieve
nasal bone the two slender bones that support the bridge of the nose. they join the frontal bone superiorly and form part of the nasal septum. nas/o-nose
lacrimal bones the two small, thin bones located at the corner of each eye. contain fossae for the lacrimal (tear) gland and canals for the passage of the lacrimal duct. lacrim/o-tear
maxillary bones the two large bones that compose the massive upper jawbones (maxillae.) they are joined by a suture in the median plane. cleft palate occurs when these two bones do not come together regularly at birth
mandibular bone lower jawbone (mandible.) joins at the region of the temporal bone forming the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
aveoli sockets in which teeth are embedded. in both maxilla and mandible.
zygomatic bones the two bones on each side of the face that form the high portion of the cheeck.
vomer thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum.
sinuses air cavities. lighten the skull and warm and moisten air as it passes through.
vertebral, or spinal, column 26 bone segments-aka vertebrae- that are arranged in 5 divisions (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccyx) from the base of the skull to the tailbone.
intervertebral disks pads of cartilage that separate the vertebrae
cervical vertebrae C1-C7 form bony aspect of the neck
thoracic vertebrae T1-T12. articulate with the 12 pair of ribs.
lumbar vertebrae L1-L5. strongest and largest of the backbones.
sacral vertebrae sacrum. 5 separate bones that fuse as a young child. as an adult it is slightly curved, triangularly shaped bone.
coccyx tailbone. fused.
vertebral body
Created by: spierson