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Neuroanatomy

QuestionAnswer
What is the name of the decussation of each tract and the level at which it occurs: 1. lateral corticospinal tract 2. dorsal column medial lemniscus 3. anterolateral pathway 1. pyramidal decussation at cervicomedullary junction 2. internal arcuate fibers (lower medulla) 3. anterior commissure (spinal cord)
What are three destinations for axons relaying proprioceptive information? 1. posterior columns to the cortex (conscious proprioception) 2. spinocerebellar tract (unconscious proprioception) 3. synapse on interneurons to the motor neurons
How are the spinal cord levels transmitted in the dorsal columns from medial to lateral? medial --- S L T C ---- lateral
1. Blood supply to anterior spinal cord. 2. Which artery does it branch off of? 3. Blood supply to posterior spinal cord? 1. anterior spinal artery 2. vertebral 3. posterior spinal arteries
1. What nerve roots make up the cervical plexus? 2. What nerve roots make up the lumbar and sacral plexus? 1. C5 - T1 2. L1 - S2
1. What are the receptors for type 1a and 1b fibers? 2. What do they transmit? 1. muscle spindles, GTOs 2. proprioception
Where are the cell bodies of the neurons involved in fine touch: 1. first neuron 2. second neuron 3. third neuron Dorsal column medial lemniscus 1. drosal horn of the spinal cord 2. nucleus gracil or nucleus cuneatus of the medulla 3. VPL of the thalamus
Which section of the body do the following nuclei receive input from? 1. Gracile nucleus 2. Cuneate nucleus 1. lower body 2. upper body
Going from superior to inferior, what is the first cranial nerve to exit the pons? glossopharyngeal
Where do the nerves leave the vertebral canal in respect to their corresponding vertebrae? 1. first 7 cervical nerves 2. all other spinal nerves 1. above the vertebrae 2. below the vertebrae
1. Which horn of the spinal gray matter is the most prominent in thoracic sections? Why? 2. What do the spinocerebellar pathways carry? 1. Lateral horn: it contains preganglionic sympathetics 2. unconscious proprioceptive input from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs to the cerebellum
1. The medial portion of the motor cortex controls movement of which body part? 2. The lateral portion of the motor cortex controls movement of which body part? 1. feet (toes) 2. tongue
What are the 4 openings through which cranial nerves pass through the sphenoid? 1. optic canal 2. superior orbital fissure 3. foramen rotundum 4. foramen ovale
Which cranial nerves pass through the superior orbital fissure? 1. oculomotor 2. abducens 3. trochlear 4. opthalmic branch of trigeminal
What are the two nuclei of CN III and what is their function? 1. oculomotor nucleus: motor to medial, inferior and superior rectus; inferior oblique and levator palpabrae superioris 2. Edinger-Westphal nucleus: parasympathetics to sphincter pupillae & ciliary muscle mediating constriction and accomodation
What is the pathway for the pupillary light reflex starting with incoming light? optic fibers→pretectal area→cross posterior commissure→ bilateral Edinger-Westphal nucleus→ciliary ganglion→pupillary sphincter
What is the difference between the direct light and consensual light reflexes? Direct: shining light into one eye constricts ipsilateral pupil Consensual: shining light into one eye constricts contralateral pupil
Why does a consensual light reflex occur? Ediinger-Westphal nucleus receives bilateral inputs from both pretectal areas
Function of: 1. Nucleus Solitarius 2. Nucleus Ambiguus 1. visceral sensory information; taste, baroreceptors, gut distention (VII, IX, X) 2. Motor innervation of pharynx, larynx and upper esophagus; swallowing, palate elevation (IX, X, XI)
1. Which two cranial nerves exit through the internal acoustic meatus? 2. Aneurysm of which cerebral artery may cause mydriasis and pupil to look down and out? 1. vestibulocochlear, facial 2. posterior communicating aneurym puts pressure on the oculomotor nerve
Which 3 cranial nerves exit through the jugular foramen? 1. accessory 2. vagus 3. glossopharyngeal
1. Where does the rubrospinal tract decussate? 2. Where does it originate? 3. What spinal level does it terminate in? 1. ventral tegmental decussation in midbrain 2. red nucleus 3. cervical cord
1. What is the function of the raphespinal tract? 2. Which neurotrasmitter is released fro the raphe nucleus? 1. modulation of pain information (raphe nuclei releases serotonin to rest of brain) 2. Serotonin
Where are the cell bodies of LMNs? ventral horn of the central gray matter in the spinal cord
1. Which spinal tract facilitates the corticospinal when more force is needed? 2. Does it facilitate flexion, extension or both? 1. rubrospinal tract 2. flexion
Sensory fiber group that carry: 1. slow pain and temperature 2. fast pain and temperature 1. C fibers (Type IV) 2. Aδ (Type III)
1. Which cranial nerve mediates taste of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? 2. Posterior 1/3? 1. facial 2. glossopharyngeal
1. Which cranial nerve mediates sensation of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue? 2. Posterior 1/3? 1. trigeminal (V3) 2. glossopharyngeal
Which cranial nerve nuclei are located in the: 1. midbrain 2. pons 3. medulla 1. oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal* 2. trigeminal*, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear 3. trigeminal*, glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, vagus, accessory
1. Function of the medial longitudinal fasciculus? 2. Division of brainstem containing substantia nigra 1. interconnect vestibular nuclei with the cranial nuclei of the extraocular muscles 2. midbrain
1. Which nerve is lesioned if a patient has difficulty seeing down 2. Which muscle is effected? 1. trochlear 2. superior oblique
1. Muscle of conscious eyelid elevation? Innervation 2. Muscle of sympathetic eyelid elevation? 1. levator palpebrae; oculomotor 2. Tarsal muscle
What sensory modality is conveyed to the following CN V nuclei? 1. principal sensory 2. spinal trigeminal 3. mesencephalic 1. fine touch, conscious proprioception 2. pain/temp 3. unconscious proprioception
What are the inputs to these thalamic nuclei: 1. VPL 2. VPM 3. LGN 4. MGN 5. Ventral lateral nucleus 1. spinothalamic and dorsal columns/medial lemniscus 2. trigeminal input and taste 3. vision (lateral = light) 4. auditory input 5. basal ganglia and cerebellar input
Mesencephalic Nucleus receives ___ afferents and sends efferents to the ___. unconscious proprioception, trigeminal motor nucleus (for jaw jerk reflex)
Motor nucleus of V sends efferents to ___. muscles of mastication
What are the 3 trigeminal nerve divisions and where do they exit the cranial cavity? 1. opthalmic - superior orbital fissure 2. maxillary - foramen rotundum 3. mandibular - foramen ovale
Where are the cell bodies of the primary sensory neurons of the trigeminal nerve located? trigeminal ganglion
1. Where are the cell bodies of the LMN for the muscles of mastication? 2. Where are the cell bodies of the UMNs? 1. motor nucleus of V 2. motor cortex
The abducens nerve supplies __ muscle and exits the cranial cavity through the ___. 1. Lateral Rectus 2. Superior orbital fissure
Somatic sensory input carried by the facial nerve projects to which nuclei? all somatic information from the face, regardless of the nerve that inputs it will synapse in either the sensory nuclei of V or spinal nuclei of V (pain/temp)
Functions of the facial nuclei: 1. superior salivatory 2. main motor 3. nucleus tractus solitarius 1. lacrimation and salivation 2. muscles of facial expression 3. taste of anterior 2/3 of tongue
What are the two portions of the NTS and their function? 1. rostral - taste afferents from tongue 2. caudal - afferents from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors
What are the two main nerve branches that arise from the superior salivatory nucleus and their target innervation? 1. Superficial petrosal nerve → pterygopalatine ganglion → lacrimal, nasal and palatine glands 2. Chorda tympani nerve → submandibular ganglion → submandibular and sublingual glands
What are the 4 parasympathetic nuclei located in the brainstem and their corresponding cranial nerves? 1. Edinger-Westphal nucleus → oculommotor nerve 2. Superior Salivatory → facial nerve 3. Inferior Salivatory → glossopharyngeal nerve 4. Dorsal Motor nucleus → vagus nerve
The glossopharyngeal nerve leaves the cranial cavity through... jugular foramen
The accessory nerve originates from cells in the ___, enters the cranial cavity through ___ and exits the cranial cavity with the vagus through the ___. 1. spinal accessory nucleus (cervical spinal cord) 2. foramen magnum 3. jugular foramen
1. Hypoglossal nerve innervates all tongue muscles except the ___ which is innervated by the __ nerve. 2. It exits the cranial cavity through ... 1. palatoglossus; vagus 2. Hypoglossal canal
1. The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates which gland? 2. Which ganglion does it pass through? 1. Parotid 2. Otic
1. Ganglion for afferent facial nerve fibers 2. The middle meningeal artery enters the cranium through ___ 3. Basal cisterns are a widening of the ___. 1. geniculate ganglion 2. foramen spinosum 3. subarachnoid
Suture separating 1. two parietal bones 2. frontal from parietal 3. parietal and temporal with occipital 1. saggital suture 2. coronal 3. lambdoidal
CSF passes from ventricles to ___ space in openings of the 4th ventricle. From there, CSF is reabsorbed through ___ into the ___. 1. subarachnoid space 2. arachnoid granulations 3. superior sagittal sinus
Outline the circulation of CSF through the ventricles. Choroid plexus in lateral ventricles → intraventricular foramen (of Monroe) → 3rd ventricle → cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) → 4th ventricle
Which area of the cerebellum influences: 1. distal limb coordination? 2. proximal limb and trunk coordination? 3. balance and vestibulo-ocular reflexes? 1. intermediate hemisphere 2. vermis 3. flocculonodular lobe
1. What travels in the intermediolateral cell column? 2. Where is it found? 1. preganglionic sympathetics 2. lateral spinal grey matter between the dorsal and ventral horn, spinal cord segments T1-L3
Which fibers pass through the internal capsule 1. anterior limb 2. genu 3. posterior limb 1. corticopontine, corticostriatal 2. corticobulbar 3. corticospinal, DCML fibers
Which portion of the basal ganglia maintains tonic inhibition of the thalamus? globus pallidus internal segment
1. What role does the subthalamic nucleus have on movement? 2. Which neurotransmitter does it use? stimulates the globus pallidus internal segment with glutamate to further inhibit the thalamus
Dopamine receptors are located on the __ in the basal ganglia. putamen
1. Acetylcholine drives the __ pathway of the basal ganglia. 2. Is this pathway excitatory or inhibitory? 1. indirect 2. Indirect = Inhibitory
1. What are the two portions of the substantia nigra? 2. Which is involved in modifying the direct/indirect pathway? 1. SN pars compacta - direct/indirect path 2. SN pars reticulata
How does dopamine affect the two basal ganglia pathways? 1. drives the direct pathway 2. inhibits the indirect pathway
What would the relative activity of the Globus pallidus internal segment be in an individual with Parkinson? loss of dopamine leads to reduction of direct pathway and less disinhibition GPI output is increased
What is the relative activity of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's patients? increased output to globus pallidus internal segment
1. Which cerebral artery supplies Broca's area? 2. Which cerebral artery supplies Wernicke? 1. Superior division of the left MCA 2. Inferior division of the left MCA
Where is the likely occlusion from a patient with Alexia without Agraphia? left PCA causing damage to splenium of the corpus callosum
1. Fissure separating the temporal and parietal lobe? 2. Fissure separating the two hemisphere's? 1. Lateral fissure of Sylvius 2. longitudinal fissure
1. Prosopagnosia is associated with a lesion to ___. 2. Name the auditory gyri 1. Temporal Association Cortex 2. Heschl's gyri
1. Layer __ of the neocortex contain large efferent projections. 2. Layer __ contains primarily inputs from the thalamus. 3. Layer __ contains Betz cells. 1. Layer V 2. Layer IV 3. Layer V
1. The Vermis influences ___ muscles. 2. The lateral hemisphere influences __ muscles. 1. proximal limb 2. dorsal limb muscles
What are the 3 layers of the cerebellum? 1. molecular 2. purkinje 3. granular
What are the deep cerebellar nuclei from lateral to medial? 1. Dentate 2. Emboliform 3. Globose 4. Fastigial
What fibers cross through the: 1. superior cerebellar peduncle 2. middle cerebellar peduncle 3. Inferior cerebellar peduncle 1. mainly output 2. pontocerebellar input 3. spinal cord input
What is the direct basal ganglia pathway? 1. Cortex excites striatum 2. striatum inhibits GPI 3. GPI inhibits thalamus (VA/VL) 4. Thalamus excites motor cortex
What is the indirect Basal Ganglia Pathway? 1. Cortex excites striatum 2. striatum inhibits GPE 3. GPE inhbiits the subthalamic nucleus 4. subthalamus nucleus excites the GPI 5. GPI inhbits the thalamus (VA/VL) 6. thalamus excites the motor cortex
1. What is the input structure of the hippocampus? 2. What is the output structure of the hippocampus? 1. dentate gyrus 2. subiculum
What is the pathway of the Papez circuit starting with the hippocampus 1. hippocampus 2. mammillary body 3. thalamus 4. cingulate gyrus 5. hippocampus
What is the main role of the amygdala? to attach emotional significant to memories
1. Lesion to the amygdala leads to? 2. Lesion to the septal nuclei leads to... 3. Electrical stimulation of the amygdala leads to... 1. kluver Bucy 2. sham rage 3. rage reaction
1. Each oligodendrocyte myelinates ___ CNS axons. 2. Each Schwann myelinates ___ PNS axons. 1. multiple 2. one
Which autoimune disease: 1. oligodendrocytes destruction 2. Schwann cell destruction 1. Multiple sclerosis 2. Guillain-Barre
Peripheral nerve layer that surrounds: 1. single nerve fiber 2. nerve fascicle 3. entire nerve 1. endoneurium 2. perineurium 3. epineurium
Location of synthesis in the brain 1. NE 2. Dopamine 3. Serotonin 4. ACh 5. GABA 1. locus ceruleus 2. Ventral Tegmentum, substantia nigra zona compacta 3. Raphe nucleus 4. Nasal nucleus of Meynert 5. Nucleus accumbens
Embryologic origin of: 1. Schwann cells 2. PNS neurons 3. microglia 4. CNS neurons 5. oligodendrocytes, astrocytes 6. Meninges 1. neural crest cells 2. neural crest cells 3. neuroectoderm 4. neuroectoderm 5. mesoderm 6. mesoderm
1. Glial cells that line ventricles 2. glial cells that serve an immune role in the CNS. 1. ependymal cells 2. microglia
How do the following affect neurotransmission? 1. Botulinum toxin 2. Tetanus toxin 3. alpha-Letrotoxin 1. cleaves SNARE proteins 2. cleaves synaptobrevin in inhibitory spinal neurons 3. binds synaptotagmin causing ACh vesicle release without need for calcium
What is the pathway of the accomodation-convergence? 1. optic nerve → visual cortex 2. superior colliculus and pretectal nucleus 3. Edinger-Westphal nucleus and oculomotor nucleus
Portion of the hypothalamus responsible for: 1. hunger 2. satiety 3. cooling 4. heating 1. lateral area 2. ventromedial area 3. anterior hypothalamus 4. posterior hypothalamus
What do lesions of the following hypothalamic areas result in? 1. lateral area 2. ventromedial area 3. anterior hypothalamus 4. posterior hypothalamus 1. anorexia (destroy lateral → shrink laterally) 2. hyperphagia (destroy ventromedial → grow ventrally and medially) 3. overheating 4. poikilothermy (cold-blooded)
Which area of the hypothalamus produces: 1. ADH 2. oxytocin 1. supraoptic nucleus 2. paraventricular nucleus
Connects Wernicke's area with Broca's area Arcuate fasciculus
1. What is the region of the axon where action potentials arise? 2. How is this region different from the rest of the axon? 1. initial segment or spike initiation zone 2. contains more Na²⁺ channels
1. anterograde transport down an axon is mediated by the protein __ 2. retrograde transport down an axon is mediated by the protein __ 1. kinesin 2. dynein
What are the layers of the scalp? 1. skin 2. connective tissue (loose CT) 3. galea aponeurotica (dense CT) 4. loose areolar tissue 5. periosteium
What are the 3 openings of the 4th ventricle from which CSF passes into the subarachnoid space 1. foramina of Luschka - two lateral 2. foramen of Magendie - single median
What are the circumventricular organs? What function does each serve? 1. pineal gland - production of melatonin 2. median eminence - contain hypothalamus products to enter portal system 3. area postrema - chemoreceptor trigger zone 4. subfornical organ - initiates vasopressin release
What is the neurotransmitter of: 1. preganglionic sympathetics 2. postganglionic sympathetics 3. postganglionic to sweat glands 4. preganglionic parasympathetics 5. postganglionic parasympathetics 1. acetylcholine 2. norepinephrine 3. acetylcholine 4. acetylcholine 5. acetylcholine
What is the receptor of: 1. preganglionic sympathetics 2. postganglionic sympathetics 3. postganglionic to sweat glands 4. preganglionic parasympathetic 5. postganglionic parasympathetic 1. nicotinic 2. a and B adrenergic 3. muscarinic 4. nicotinic 5. muscarinic
1. acetylcholine is synthesize from? 2. inactivation occurs by? 1. choline and acetyl CoA 2. acetylcholinesterase
1. What does the white rami communicantes carry.? 2. What does the grey rami communicantes carry.? 1. presynaptic sympathetic fibers from the ventral primary rami to the sympathetic trunk 2. postsynaptic sympathetic fibers from the sympathetic trunk to all spinal nerves
1. In what spinal cord segments is the white rami communicantes located? 2. In what spinal cord segments is the gray rami communicantes located 1. T1 to L2 2. C2 to coccyx
What are the 3 possible fates of sympathetic neurons after entering the paravertebral ganglia? 1. synapse with the paravertebral ganglion 2. travel up or down sympathetic ganglia to synapse within neighboring paravertebral ganglia 3. travel through ganglia to later synapse within ganglia of prevertebral plexus
What are the 4 prevertebral ganglia? 1. celiac 2. superior mesenteric 3. inferior mesenteric 4. aorticorenal
1. (preganglionic/postganglinic) sympathetic neurons synapse on adrenal medulla 2. The neurotransmitter __ binds __ receptors on the medulla. 1. preganglionic 2. ACh, nicotinic
What are the 4 cranial nerves of the parasympathetic NS? 1. oculomotor 2. facial 3. glossopharyngeal 4. vagus
How does the autonomic NS differ from the somatic in location of efferent nerves reaching the target organ? - autonomic NS synapses on ganglia between the CNS and target - Somatic NS has a LMN that reaches directly from CNS to target
1. Where in the spinal cord does the arachnoid mater end? 2. Which cranial nerve can get compressed between the posterior cerebral artery and superior cerebellar artery? 1. S2 2. oculomotor (as in a PCA aneurysm)
1. What is the role of the preoptic area? 2. What does a lesion of this area result in? 1. regulates release of gonotropic hormones 2. arrested sexual development before puberty or amenorrhea and impotance after puberty
What are the two main dopamine containing projections in the brain? What nucleus do they project from? 1. substantia nigra → nigrostriatal tract 2. VTA → mesolimbic tract
1. glial fibrillary acidic protein is a marker for 2. Vasogenic edema 1. astrocytes 2. edema caused by destruction of tight jenction between endothelial cells and leakage of plasma into the extracellular space
Id the pathology associated with each cellular pigment/inclusion 1. lipofuscin 2. melanin 3. lewy body 4. negri body 1. aging 2. disappears in Parkinsons 3. Parkinson's 4. Rabies
ID the pathology associated with each cellular pigment/inclusion 1. hirano body 2. neurifibrillary tangles 3. cowdry type A inclusion bodies 1. Alzheimer's 2. Alzheimer's 3. herpes simple encephalitis
What are the cutaneous receptors for 1. pain 2. touch 3. pressure/vibration 4. light touch 1. nociceptors 2. Meissner's 3. Pacinian corpuscles 4. Merkel disks
Vasculature of the 1. subdural space 2. epidural space 1. bridging veins 2. meningeal arteries and veins
1. Kernig sign 2. crus cerebri 1. when patient is supine, flex hip but cannot extend knee; sign of meningeal irritation 2. anterior portion of the cerebral peduncle which contains the motor tracts (midbrain)
1. Deep penetrating branches of the middle cerebral artery that supply the caudate, putamen & globus pallidus 2. Occlusion of this vessel results in contralateral hemianopsia with macular sparing 1. lateral striate arteries 2. posterior cerebral artery
Blood supply of the internal capsule (2) 1. lateral striate arteries 2. anterior choroidal artery
What cord segment belongs to each reflex: 1. ankle 2. knee 3. biceps 4. forearm 5. triceps 1. S1,2 2. L3,4 3. C5,6 4. C7,8
1. The oculomotor nerve contains sympathetic and parasympathetic output. Which is on the outside of the nerve? 2. Which is first affected by compression? 3. Which is affected by vascular disease (diabetes)? 1. Parasympathetic 2. Parasympathetic 3. Sympathetic
1. Superior oblique allows the eye to move.. 2. Bell's palsy is a defect in.. 1. down and out 2. lower motor neuron of the facial nerve
1. Where does the chorda tympani nerve branch off? 2. What does it innervate? 1. branches from the facial nerve inside the facial canal, just before the facial nerve exits the skull via the Stylomastoid foramen 2. submandibular/sublingual gland, taste receptors in tongue
1. Anterior portion of the sclera 2. Vascular layer of connective tissue between sclera and retina. 1. Cornea 2. Choroid
1. Muscle responsible for accommodation of lens for near vision. 2. Which sensory pathway does not involve a relay in the thalamus? 1. Ciliary muscle 2. olfactory
1. Yellowish area of the retina responsible for central vision. 2. Center of the macula. 1. macula 2. fovea
1. plasma filling the anterior chamber of the eye. 2. Fluid filling cavity between lens and retina 1. aqueous humor 2. vitreous humor
1. Secretes aqueous humor 2. Aqueous humor pathway 3. Absorbed aqueous humor 1. ciliary body 2. fills posterior chamber → around lens → through pupil into anterior chamber 3. canal of Schlemm
How does aqueous humor drain from the eye? via the trabecular meshwork at the limbus through the Canal of Schlemm
1. What comprises the molecule rhodopsin? 2. What is the purpose of the different components? 1. retinal - absorbs the photon 2. opsin - GPCR
1. What is the conformation of retinal prior to light exposure? 2. How does it change with light? 1. 11-cis retinal 2. photons convert it to the trans conformation
What are the 4 destination of the retinal ganglion cells and funtion: 1. striate cortex (vision) 2. superior colliculus (smooth eye movement) 3. pretectal area (pupil responses) 4. suprachiasmatic nucleus (sleep/wake cycle)
1. Which half of the retina projects through Meyer's loop? 2. What part of the occipital cortex does it project to? 3. The superior half of the retina travels to the ___ gyrus. 1. inferior half 2. lingual gyrus (bottom) 3. cuneus gyrus (top)
What is the pathway for the pupillary light reflex from incoming light to pupil constriction? 1. Optic fibers → LGN of thalamus → ipsilateral pretectal area 2. fibers cross posterior commissure to bilaterally innervate both Edinger-Westphal nuclei 3. → ipsilateral ciliary ganglion → pupillary sphincter 4. pupillary constriction
What are the 3 components of the accomodation convergence reaction? 1. accomodation 2. vergence 3. pupillary constriction
What are the major layers of the retina starting with the innermost? 1. retinal epithelium 2. photoreceptor layer 3. outer nuclear layer 4. inner nuclear layer 5. ganglion layer
What is the difference between closed angle and open angle glaucoma? 1. Closed angle: obstruction between iris and lens 2. Open angle: obstructed outflow of aqeuous humor (e.g. Canal of Schlemm)
What is the role of the ciliary muscle in near and distant vision? 1. near vision - ciliary muscle contracts, lens relaxes and becomes more convex 2. distant vision - ciliary muscle relaxes, lens flattens
1. Which 3 cranial nerves carry taste afferents? 2. What ganglion are their cell bodies located in? 3. What nerve do they each continue as to innervate the tongue? 1. facial → geniculate ganglion → chorda tympani 2. glossopharyngeal → petrosal ganglion → lingual branch 3. vagus → nodose ganglion → internal branch of superior laryngeal
Where in the brainstem do taste afferents synapse? rostral portion of the NTS
What are the two muscles that dampen noises? What is their innervation? Which noises do they effect? 1. tensor tympani dampens chewing - trigeminal (V3) 2. stapedius dampens loud noises - facial nerve
1. Portion of the cerebellum associated with the vestibular nerve 2. Neurotransmitter from upper to lower motor neuron 3. Neurotransmitter from lower motor neuron to muscle 1. Flocculonodular lobe 2. Glutamate 3. Acetylcholine
1. Which way does the tongue deviate with a hypoglossal nerve injury 2. Disorder of skilled movement. Where is the lesion 1. toward the lesioned side 2. Apraxia; inferior parietal lobe
Role of the: 1. lateral lemniscus 2. medial lemniscus 1. ascending auditory information from the superior olivary nuclei to the inferior colliculi 2. ascending cutaneous and conscious proprioceptive information from the dorsal columns of the spinal cord
Which sense is associated with the: 1. inferior colliculus 2. superior colliculus 1. auditory relay 2. visual relay
1. Impaired horizontal eye movement with weak adduction of affected eye and abduction nystagmus of contralateral eye. 2. Where is the lesion? 1. internuclear ophthalmoplegia 2. medial longitudinal fasciculus
1. Whay is hyperacusis? 2. Lesion to which cranial nerve may result in hyperacusis? 1. over-sensitivity to sound due to paralysis of the stapedius 2. lesion to facial nerve
1. What information is carried in the spinocerebellar tract? 2. What structures provide input to the spinocerebellar tracts? 1. proprioception 2. golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles
1. Which cranial nerve mediate sensation of middle ear? 2. Which cranial nerve mediate sensation of external auditory meatus? 1. glossopharyngeal 2. vagus
1. Total or partial loss of vision in a normal appearing eye 2. Where is the usual lesion 3. Disease in which patient denies the visual impairment 1. Cortical blindness 2. damage to primary visual cortex; usually PCA infarct 3. Anton syndrome
How do you differentiate cauda equina syndrome from conus medullaris syndrome? 1. conus medullaris has perineal anesthesia and is usually bilateral 2. Cauda equina has saddle shaped anesthesia usually unilateral
How does myelin effect neural cell: 1. resistance 2. capacitance 1. ↑ resistance 2. ↓ capacitance
Where is the lesion: nasal speech, dysphagia and deviation of the uvula toward left side right nucleus ambiguus (not corticobulbar fibers because there is bilateral innervation so NA)
How does botulinum toxin effect neurotransmission? degrades SNAP-25, a SNARE protein involved in vesicle fusion of ACh
How does tetanospamin effect neurotransmission? 1. degrades synaptobrevin, a SNARE protein involved in vesicle fusion 2. prevents GABA and glycine release in inhibitor interneurons of the spinal cord
Adie pupil dilated pupil that reacts sliggishly to light
1. Marcus Gunn pupil 2. What condition is it usually seen in? 1. lesion of the afferent limb of the pupillary light reflex 2. Multiple Sclerosis
What layer of the meninges do the following arteries run: 1. Cerebral arteries 2. middle meningeal artery 3. bridging veins 1. subarachnoid space 2. epidural space (between dura and the skull) 3. subdural space
What do the following connect: 1. Medial longitudinal fasciculus 2. Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus 1. eye movements with vestibular input 2. hypothalamus and mamillary bodies to midbrain central gray
What do the following connect: 1. Medial lemniscus 2. Lateral lemniscus 3. Commissure of Probst 1. dorsal columns to thalamus 2. part of auditory pathway 3. connects nuclei of the lateral lemniscus
What does the medial forebrain bundle connect? septal area, hypothalamus, basal olfactory areas, hippocampus to the midbrain, pons and medulla
What do the following connect: 1. Stria terminalis 2. Fornix 1. connects amygdala to hypothalamus 2. hippocampus to septal nuclei, hypothalamus, mamillary bodies and anterior thalamus
What do the following connect: 1. Uncinate fasciculus 2. Arcuate fasciculus 1. anterior temporal lobe to orbitofrontal gyrus 2. Wernicke's area to Broca's area
What do the following connect: 1. Anterior commissure 2 Posterior commissure 1. frontal gyri and portions of basal ganglai 2. pretectal nuclei
What function do these serve: 1. Medial geniculate body 2. Lateral geniculate body 3. Superior colliculus 4. Inferior colliculus 1. auditory relay 2. visual relay 3. coordination of head/eye movements with visual system 4. auditory relay
What function do these serve: 1. superior olive 2. ciliary ganglion 3. gasserian ganglion 4. geniculate ganglion 1. auditory relay 2. parasympathetic from oculomotor nerve 3. trigeminal nerve 4. sensation and taste via facial nerve
What function do these serve: 1. Sphenopalatine ganglion 2. Submandibular ganglion 3. Spiral ganglion 1. lacrimal and nasal glands from the facial nerve 2. Submandibular and sublingual glands from facial nerve 3. hearing to cochlear nerve
What function do these serve: 1. Scarpa's ganglion 2. Otic ganglion 3. Inferior ganglion of X (nodose) 4. Superior ganglion of X (jugular) 1. vestibular function to vestibular nerve 2. parotid secretion from glossopharyngeal nerve 3. taste and visceral sensation to vagus 4. ear sensation to vagus
Created by: amichael87