Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Final Exam-Neuro

Neuro 110 Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
2 Main Muscle Types Striated Smooth
Sub-types of Striated Muscle Skeletal Cardiac
What types of nerves innervate muscles? What are they used for? A-alpha motor neurons - voluntary movement A-gamma motor neurons - reflexes
List the steps involved in the contraction of a muscle Part 1 1. Action Potential Arrives at Terminal 2. Voltage Sensitive Ca2+ channels open 3. Influx of Ca2+ 4. Exocytosis - Ach leaves terminal 5. Ach binds to Nicotinic Receptor 6. Influx of Na+, causing the End-plate Potential (EPP)
List the steps involved in the contraction of a muscle Part 2 7. Propogation of AP down Sarcolema 8. AP travels down T-tubule 9. Ca2+ is released by pulling the plug out of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum 10. Influx of Ca2+ inside cell 11. Ca2+ causes confirmational change, exposing Tropomyosin 12.PowerStroke & Reco
Define Reflex Unconscious response to a stimuli
What is the function of Muscle Spindles and what is this function used for Monosynaptic stretch reflex; used to prevent muscle from overstretching
What is the function of Golgi Tendon and what is this function used for Golgi Tendon Reflex; used to prevent muscle from overcontracting
What is autonomy losing body parts for self protection
How are bears and astronauts similar? Bears lose muscle during hibernation, astronauts lose muscle in space.
What is the problem, where does it occur, and what are possible treatments of Muscular Dystrophy? Problem w/ muscle structure; occurs in peripheral; No cure, exercise muscle as treatment
What is the problem, where does it occur, and what are possible treatments of Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease) Cells attack nerves in spinal cord; Central and peripheral; No treatment/cure
What is the problem, where does it occur, and what are possible treatments of Myesthenia Gravis Autoimmune; Peripheral; Acytylcholinesterase inhibitors
What is the problem, where does it occur, and what are possible treatments of Parkison's Disease Depreciation of Dopaminergic neurons; occurs in Basil Ganglia; L-Dopa as treatment
What are the 3 levels of motor control 1.) Planning of Movement ==> 2.) Tacticts of Movement ==> 3.)Execution of Movement
What is the role of the prefrontal/posterior parietal cortex in producing motor movement Sending signals to area 6
What is the major role of area 6 Controls complex movements on both sides; "what" actions are going to be carried out
What is the major role of area 4 "how" actions are carried out
What is the major role of the Basal Ganglia Starter Motor
What is the major role of the Cerebellum Coordination of movement; learning movements; compares what is intended to what has happened
Describe the total motor loop involved in producing a motor output Basal Ganglia allows movement to be made ==> Sends signal through VLo to Area 6 ==> Area 6 "instructs" Area 4 (output) ==> Cerebellum loop decides if movement has been done before ==> Back to Area 6, Area 4,==> output
What is the equilibrium potential of an ion? The point at which there is no net movement of the ion across the membrane
Why is the intracellular concentration of Ca+ so low? It is sequestered by certain organelles; the membrane is very impermeable to calcium at rest; it is actively transported out of the cytosol
What is the approximate concentration of Na+ outside the neuronal membrane? 150 mM
What second messenger causes Ca+ to be released from organelles? IP3
Which of the following is not an amino acid: GABA; Ach; Glutamate; Glycine Ach
What ion blocks NMDA potentials if the postsynaptic cell has not been depolarized? Magnesium
What effects could a GABA antagonist have on the CNS? Seizures
What is the most excitatory NT Glutamate
What NT is broken down in the synaptic cleft before reuptake Ach
What range of pressure waves can the human auditory system detect 20-20,000 Hz
What region of the retina is most highly specialized for high-resolution vision Fovea
Photoreceptors are ____________ in the dark and_________________ by light Depolarized, Hyperpolarized
What type of neuron would propogate an AP the fastest? Fat, Myelinated
What type of energy do hair follicle receptors detect? Mechanical
What type of energy do Otolith organs detect? Mechanical
What type of energy do Rattlesnake Pit Organs detect? Electrical
What type of energy do Free nerve endings detect? Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical
What type of energy do Olfactory receptors detect? Chemical
What type of energy do Meissner's Corpuscles detect? Mechanical
What type of energy do Fish Lateral Line Receptors detect? Mechanical
What type of energy do Cone Cells detect? Electrical
What type of energy do Taste Receptors detect? Chemical
Sharp, rapid pain travels along what type of neurons? A-delta
What region of the spinal cord contains axons that transmit noxious stimuli? Spinothalamic Tracts
Tunnel vision indicates a problem in the visual field at the level of the... Optic Chiasm
Why is Umami important for humans to taste? Detects proteins and amino acids for muscles
Why are Lipids important for humans to taste Source of Energy
Why is Salty important for humans to taste? Detects Na+, K+, and Ca++; needed for NS and osmotic balance
Why is Biter important for humans to taste? Detects poison
Why is Sweet important for humans to taste? Detects glucose
Why is Sour important for humans to taste? Detects spoiled foods
The "all or none" characteristic of action potentials is due to The Hodgkin Cycle
The An agonist to GABA in the CNS might cause increased inhibition
Describe the Rising Phase of an Action Potential Activation Gate opens, Voltage Sensitve Na+ channels open, Hodgin Cycle begins
Describe the Peak of an Action Potential Inactivavtion gate closes, Stopping the influx of Na+; Voltage sensitive K+ channels open, causing an Efflux of K+
Describe the Falling Phase of an Action Potential Enter Absolute Refractory Period. Another AP cannot be produced no matter how strong the stimulus is; K+ is still leaving the cell
The equilibrium potential of what ion is closest to the resting membrane potential? K+
Created by: jdefe28