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Biology 11 Ch 4

Genetic Processes: 4.1 - 4.3 (all other terms discussed)

QuestionAnswer
adenine guanine cytosine thymine the 4 nucleotides used to make DNA
adenine guanine cytosine uracil the 4 nucleotides used to make RNA
amniocentesis the medical procedure used to withdraw amniotic fluid containing fetal cells
anaphase centromeres split apart and sister chromatids separate from each other
binary fission (of bacteria) a form of asexual reproduction used by all prokaryotes
cell plate the structure that forms prior to cytokinesis in plants to separate the cytoplasm
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) the medical procedure used to withdraw cells from the chorion
chromatin uncondensed fibres of DNA in the cell nucleus
cytokinesis divide the cytoplasm
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) a nucleic acid molecule that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self replication. Made of two long chains joined together.
daughter cell a cell formed by either the division or budding of the original parent cell
Down syndrome the result of a chromosome disorder due to an extra chromosome
double helix the most common 3D structure for cellular DNA in which two nucleotide strands are anti-parallel
egg (ovum) the common name for a female gamete
denucleated egg cell an egg cell with the nucleus removed
eukaryotic cell cycle G1, S, G2, M, and cytokinesis
furrow (a.k.a. cleavage furrow) the indentation that begins the process of cytokinesis in animal cells
G0 phase resting phase of the cell cycle
G1 phase the phase that occurs prior to S phase in which a major period of growth often occurs
G2 phase the phase that occurs after S phase in which continued growth occurs
gametogenesis the process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes
genetic diversity the level of biodiversity which identifies the total number of genetic characterisitics in the genetic make-up of a species
genetically modified organism (GMO) an organism that has had the genetic sequence of its genome altered for a specific purpose
independent assortment (of homologous chromosomes) the process that creates gametes that carry different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes
interphase the phase between successive mitotic divisions
metaphase the phase in which spindle fibres guide the chromosomes to the equator or centre line of the cell
microtubules make up the spindle fibres and are hollow tube-like structures
mitosis division of the nucleus resulting in identical genetic material
nitrogen bases in DNA & RNA adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, & uracil
nucleic acid the name of a substance present in living cells (include DNA & RNA), whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain
nucleotide the name of the molecule composed of a phosphate, nitrogen base & pentose sugar
parent cell the name of the original cell before cell division
pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) genetic testing that is done before the embryo is implanted in the uterus
prenatal genetic testing a variety of tests performed on a fetus that are based on testing for genetic abnormalities
prophase the phase in which the cells chromatic condense and the nuclear membrane breaks down
ribonucleic acid a long linear molecule made up of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell
S phase (of cell cycle) the phase in the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated
semi-conservative (replication of DNA) name given to the method of DNA replication in which each new double strand molecule contains one original strand
somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning the technique used in both reproductive and therapeutic cloning in which the egg cells nucleus is removed and replaced with the nucleus of donor cell
sperm the common name for a male gamete
spindle apparatus this structure moves and organizes the chromosomes during mitosis and is made up of the spindle fibres and centrosome
telophase the phase in which the chromosomes have reached the opposite poles of the cell
tetrad a group or set of 4 chromosomes found in prophase I of meiosis
transgenic organism a genetically modified organism whose genetic material has been altered
ultrasound a non-invasive test using sound or other vibration for medical imaging
X chromosome one of the two sex chromosomes that both sexes possess
Y chromosome one of the two sex chromosomes that only the male possess (under normal circumstances)
Created by: marsenault